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a. A process of examination and discovery of natural phenomena that involves making observations, constructing hypotheses, testing predictions, experimenting, and drawing conclusions and revising them as necessary.
a. Treatment- What you are testing
b. Experimental group- A group of people who are given the treatment
c. Control group- A group of people who are not given the treatment (used for comparison)
d. Independent Variable- The variable you have control over, what you can choose and manipulate.
e. Dependent Variable- Characteristics of your experiment that are subject to change
a. Hydrogen bonds make water cohesive- makes water easily transferable
b. Low density as a solid
c. A good solvent
a. Carbohydrates- (Monosaccharide, Polysaccharides) Functions are to store energy, receptors, and structure of the plant wall.
b. Proteins- (amino acid) bodybuilding macromolecules
c. Nucleic acid- (nucleotide) information storage and transfer
d. Lipids- (glycerol, fatty acids)- membrane, structure, energy storage, insulation.
a. a fluid mosaic of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
a. Provides structural shape and support and enables cellular movement
a. Processes and packages proteins, lipids, and other molecules.
a. Kinetic energy- Energy of moving objects, heat and light energy.
b. Potential energy- Capacity to do work that results from the location or position of an object, stored energy used for work
c. Chemical energy- the potential of a chemical substance to transform through a chemical reaction
a. Energy can never be created or destroyed
b. Every conversion of energy includes the transformation of some energy into heat
a. Inputs- Carbon dioxide, water, light
b. Outputs- Carbohydrate (glucose), oxygen, heat
a. Inputs-Oxygen, sugar molecules
b. Outputs- carbon dioxide, water
a. A-T G-C , bases are connected with hydrogen bonds, Double helix
a. Transcription- the sequence for a gene is copied from dna to a middle molecule called mRNA and then Translation happens and it is encoded in mRNa and is used to direct the production of a protein
a. Biotechnology- adding, deleting, or transplanting genes from one organism to another to alter the organisms in useful ways. (Chop, amplify, insert, grow, identify)
b. Fingerprinting- comparisons of dna regions that have forensic value in identifying tissue specimens to determine whom they came from
a. Mitosis- to enable cells to generate new identical cells.
b. Meiosis- generates sperm and eggs and a great deal of variation
What are Chromosomes, genes, and alleles
a. Chromosomes- organized structure of dna, protein, and rna found in cells
b. Genes-molecular unit of heredity of a living organism
c. Alleles- one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene or group of genes.
a. Each parent puts into every sperm or egg it makes a single set of instructions for building the trait
b. The actual trait produced by an individual depends on the two copies of the gene that they inherit from
a. Fossil record, Biogeography, comparative anatomy and embryology, molecular biology, Laboratory and field experiments
a. Sexual- reproduction which offspring arise from more than one parent.
b. Asexual- reproduction which offspring arise from a single parent
a. Hormones- regulate growth and development, help plants respond to their enviorment
b. Tropisms-Influence plants direction of growth
a. Extent of energetic differences in the reproductive investment
a. Cell, tissue, organ, organ system
a. transporst gases, nutrients, waste products, hormones, and immune system cells throughout the body.
a. Acts as the control center and interprets, store and transmits information
a. Perturbation away from set point results in corrective action
a. Food is comprised of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
b. Digestion is the process of dismantling large pieces of food and breaking it down.
c. Absorption moves nutrients from your gut to your cells
a. Transport- transports oxygen, nutrients, waste products, immune system cells, and hormones in the blood throughout the body
b. Temperature regulation- Helps maintain body temperature within the optimum range for metabolic functioning
c. Protection- contains a variety of cells and chemicals that contribute the individuals defenses against infection by pathogens
a. Open-occurs in insects and most mollusks, include collecting vessels and hemolymph, no clear distinction between circulating fluid and interstitial fluid
b. Closed- occurs in all vertebrates, blood contained within vessels that separate it from interstitial fluid
a. Arteries- vessels that carry blood away from the heart and to the capillaries
b. Capillaries- tiny porous vessels that bring blood close to tissue, enabling the diffusion of gases, nutrients, and other molecules into and out of the tissue
c. Veins- Vessels that carry blood away from the capillaries back toward the heart
d. Blood flows out of and back of the heart in blood vessels
a. An extremely durable pump
b. Valves in the heart keep blood flowing in one direction.
a. Pulmonary circuit- to the lungs for loading up with oxygen
b. Systemic circuit- to the tissues and organs of the body
a. Plasma-salty water, variety of molecules
b. Packed cells- red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
a. Oxygen and carbon dioxide must get into and out of the circulatory system
b. Begins as air I sucked in through the mouth or nose
c. Air moves down the trachea into the lungs where oxygen diffuses from the air into capillaries and bloodstream, while carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to air. Then oxygen- depleted air is exhaled and the process begins again
a. Respiratory gases are exchanged between the external environment and the organisms circulatory system and then exchanged between the circulatory system and the cells involved in cellular respiration.
a. Controlled by muscles
b. When you inhale the diaphragm and intercostals muscles contract
c. When you exhale the diaphragm and intercostals muscles relax
d. Involve the trachea, ribs, intercostals muscles, and diaphragm
a. Releases its oxygen in organs and tissues
b. Each molecule is a tangle of four polypeptide chains with four molecules of iron that creates four seats which oxygen attaches.
a. Disease-causing microorganisms
b. Cannot survive outside the body for very long
a. Provides protection against an enormous variety of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasitic protists, parasitic worms)
a. Physical barriers- form a wall, keep pathogens from entering body tissue (skin, mucous membrane)
b. Non-specific immunity- recognizes and destroys pathogens that breach external barriers
c. Specific immunity- destroys pathogens that are not killed by nonspecific defenses, recognizes specific pathogens and forms a memory of each
Defense mechanisms of integumentary system
a. Skin, lysozymes and other enzymes, acidic secretions, cilia, tears, ear wax.
a. Identify the intruder- immune system cells recognize molecules found only on the surface of pathogens
b. Call for backup- immune system cells secrete signaling proteins called cytokines that recruit more immune cells to the site of the infection or warn other cells
c. Attack and Remove- specialized immune system cells destroy, break down, and ingest both the pathogens and any cells infected
a. Specialized cells that play roles in both specific and non specific divisions of the immune system , destroy pathogens and foreign organisms in the bloodstream and interstitial fluid. (leukocytes)
a. Neutrophils- ingest small organisms
b. Macrophages- ingest whole pathogens
c. Denritic cells phagocytic cells that present ingested pathogens to cells of specific immune systems cells.
d. Natural killer cells- kill body cells infected by pathogens
a. The memory of the specific division of the immune system
b. Two ways to acquire immunity are getting sick and getting a vaccine
a. Foreign substances that induce a specific immune response
1. Antibody and antibody functions
a. Proteins that recognize certain antigens enhancing the systems ability to recognize and destroy those antigens.
b. Fuctions ; Phagocyte signaling, Antigen clumping, prevention of cell entry, complement protein signaling
a. White blood cells responsible for specific immunity responses
b. B cells or T cells
c. Fight pathogens by humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity
a. Occurs when an individuals immune system responds inappropriately to the individuals own cells and tissues as if they were pathogens mistaking self for nonself
a. Aids is caused by HIV which infects immune system cells including helper T cells
a. An inappropriate immune response to what should be a harmless substance
a. Primary producers (plants that get energy from sun) , primary consumers (herbivores), secondary consumers(carnivores) , tertiary consumers (top carnivores)
a. Energy pyramids reveal that the biomass of primary producers in an ecosystem tends to be far greater thatn the biomass of herbivores
a. Each chemical stored in a non living part of the enviorment
b. Chemical cycles through the food chain
c. Eventually the chemical is returned to reservoir
1. Greenhouse effect
a. Energy from sun passes through atmosphere to warm earths surface, some energy is reflected back and escapes the atmosphere, some energy is absorbed by greenhus gases and remains trapped in the atmosphere which heats the air
b. Carbon dioxide and methane are called greenhouse gases because they trap heat in the atmosphere
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