Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Why do beach communities have milder weather than inland communities?
Water absorbs more heat
Name four greenhouse gases. Exam version: Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?
· Water Vapor
· Carbon Dioxide
· Nitrous Oxide
What is/are the primary factor(s) that determine(s) the climate of an area?
· Solar energy – supplies heat
· Temperature & Rainfall
What or where on earth is the largest reservoir of carbon dioxide and heat?
Which process does the carbon dioxide that you exhale come from?
How do scientists "know" the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide that existed on Earth hundreds or thousands of years ago?
Air bubbles in Ice Cores
The distribution of deserts on earth is not random, but determined by two main mechanisms that form deserts. What are these two mechanisms and where do they cause deserts?
What does it mean to say that a species is endangered?
Why is ecology studied at the population level or higher?
Most ecological process cannot be observed or studied at the individual level
Define the term ‘ecosystem’. An ecosystem consists of all of the _________ and ____________ factors in a given area.
Biological organisms (living) and non-living component
Organisms responsible for primary productivity, such as grasses, trees, and agricultural crops, are known as ________________.
Tertiary consumers consume organisms on the trophic level below them. So, what exactly do they consume and how much energy is available from this lower trophic level?
10% and they eat other carnivores, animals that eat animals who eat plants
A species found ONLY within a certain region is said to be _______________ to that region.
Earth’s largest ecosystems, biomes, are defined primarily by what?
Name some characteristics of Biodiversity Hotspots. (Exam: A Biodiveristy Hotspot is: )
Why have spruce bark beetles recently become a major threat to millions of acres of trees in Alaska?
Warmer winters = more beetles not dying and are able to reproduce more
Which factors affect temperature variation among geographic locations?
· Wind & ocean patterns
· Elevation – how high you are
· Latitude – amount of sunlight/solar energy
Why is it hotter at the equator than at the poles?
· The curvature of the earth leads to a given amount of solar energy being spread out over a smaller area at the equator than at the poles
How does increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere lead to global warming?
More heat is captured by CO2 molecules cause increased heat.
Define a keystone species. Why are they important in an ecosystem?
At what latitude do most of the deserts in the world occur at and why at this latitude?
30 degrees both North & South due to rain shadow affect
Why do beaches on the west coast of the US have colder water than beaches on the east coast?
· The ocean currents in the northern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise direction, so water off the coast has just come from the warm south.
What is the rain shadow effect and how does it work?
· As air goes over the top of the mountain and falls back down toward lower elevations, it holds more moisture, creating a “rain shadow” desert with very little precipitation
"In an energy flow pyramid, there is always less energy available at higher trophic levels than at lower trophic levels." This statement is: True or false? Explain your reasoning.
Which geographic factors increase species richness (biodiversity)?
· Solar energy available
· Evolutionary history of an area
· Rate of disturbance
· Distance from equator (closer = more biodiversity)
Name 3 major contributing factors in the damage done by invasive (exotic) species to an ecosystem?
· No predators
· No natural checks
· High population
· Extinction of native species
Define an invasive (exotic) species and their effects on an ecosystem.
· Invasive – Non native species
· Over competition & killing off native species
Primary producers are the chief determinate of what in a biome?
How much energy is there to support other species in the ecosystem.
Regarding global warming and the greenhouse effect, why is burning fossil fuels worse than burning wood?
During the last few years, scientists have observed that caribou have had difficulty migrating. What has changed in the caribou’s environment to cause these difficulties?
True or false? Invasive species cause native species to become less susceptible to extinction because they increase genetic variation.
o They actually increase their susceptibility to extinction because they over compete for resources
o Have no mechanisms to defend themselves
o Exotic species have no predators
List the order of biomes you would most likely encounter if you were moving directly south from the equator.
How would Earth change if there was no greenhouse effect at all?
Temperature of earth would decrease aka we would freeze
Ecosystems are influences both by biotic and abiotic factors. Name three biotic and three abiotic factors.
Exam Version: Which of the following is an example of an abiotic/biotic factor?
· Biotic: death rate, litter size, and prey
· Abiotic: rain fall, temperature, and climate
Why do beaches on the west coast of the United States have colder water than beaches on the east coast?
The ocean currents in the northern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise direction, so water off the coast has just come from the warm south.
If a food chain consisted of grass to rabbits to foxes, how many pounds of foxes could be expected in a meadow, which has 10,000 pounds of grass?
o Cross out each 0 depending on how many levels
Why is it important to maintain the planet's biodiversity?
Name the features that would be important factors in deciding that an area is a "biodiversity hotspot".
How does planting trees combat global warming?
Industry makes CO2 which trees take it in and turn into oxygen and sugar
What is the primary reason for targeting "biodiversity hotspots" for conservation?
Keep more species alive
Why is water so important in controlling Earth's climate?
Helps to absorb large amounts of heat
All living organisms interact with their environment to obtain the energy necessary for life. Different organisms have different methods of achieving this. How do the following types of organisms do this: primary consumers, producers, decomposers, and tertiary consumers.
· Primary consumers – consuming plants
· Producers – plants through photosynthesis
· Decomposers – dead organic material
· Tertiary – carnivores; animals that eat animals that eat plants
Why is the carbon cycle biologically important? Although carbon dioxide constitutes a very small fraction of the Earth's atmosphere, why is it extremely important to life on Earth?
Many bacteria carry plasmids containing bacterial genes that are easily and rapidly spread through an entire bacterial colony. Why are plasmids of particular concern to humans?
Why are viruses not classified as living organisms?
Has no metabolism.
True or False: The vast majority of microscopic organisms found on everyday items cause disease in humans.
What is the general name given to disease-causing organisms?
Name the defense mechanisms that our (integumentary system) provide against pathogens.
Skin, hair, mucus, cilia, tears, oil, stomach acid, sweat, cilia in respiratory tract, hair
What is the role of B cells in the specific immune system?
Make antibodies that bind to antigens on the pathogen
A foreign substance to the body that triggers an immune response is called what?
What does the “secondary” immune response refer to?
Occurs rapidly and produces a more intense response
The name for the condition where an individual’s immune system response inappropriately to “self” antigens is called:
A vaccine is usually composed of what?
A weakened or killed form of the virus/bacteria
____________ protects individuals against pathogens located inside body cells.
What are the three divisions of the human immune system, in which our bodies prevent and fight infection?
· Physical barrier
· Nonspecific Immunity
· Specific Immunity
Describe an allergy.
· Pollen allergy
· Food allergy
· Animal allergy
How do vaccines create immunity?
Historically, what has been the deadliest human infectious disease?
The Sabin vaccine is a liquid containing weakened polio viruses. Why do vaccinated individuals become protected against polio?
The weakened virus promotes production of antibodies& of memory cells.
Which specific (adaptive) defense mechanism defends primarily against antigens in body fluids?
What life forms are viruses able to infect?
One difference between the innate and adaptive immune system is when you first encounter a new foreign invader, the latter is slower than the former. Why?
Innate is ready to go but Adaptive has to learn it and be shown what it’s up against.
What is the role of the stomach with regards to immunity?
To destroy microbes w/strongly acidic gastric juices
Which type of cell is most likely to ingest pathogens and “present” fragments of these pathogens to other immune cells on their surface?
Macrophages / Dentritexiles?
Immune cells recognize “self” from “non-self” by recognizing what?
What are the risks and the benefits of fever?
A molecule that induces a specific immune response is known as what?
Why doesn’t passive immunity last very long?
Drink mom’s milk – doesn’t last very long, only lasts a few weeks and after that they are no longer protected
What occurs in a victim of Type I diabetes?
List examples of infections and autoimmune disorders.
· Type 1 – Autoimmune
· Tuberculosis – Infection
· Multiosclerosis – Autoimmune
· Asthma – Autoimmune
· Measles – Infection
Why does secondary immune response occur much more quickly than the primary response?
Why don’t people develop immunity to the common cold?
There are over 200 strains of it.
A research scientist is trying to design a new antibiotic that will kill bacteria but not harm human host cells. What part of bacteria would serve as an ideal target to allow for this kind of selectivity?
How do human diseases caused by bacteria and diseases caused by viruses react to antibiotics?
Antibiotics never kill ALL bacteria. Your immune system cleans up the rest.
An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. What will be the result of the continued application of this same antibiotic?
Antibiotic will become resistant to it.
An individual receives a flu vaccine and is well protected for the current flu season. The following flu season, the individual fails to get another flu vaccine and comes down with the flu. What is the most likely explanation for vaccine ineffectiveness in the subsequent flu season?
Memory cells forget what the antigen looks like
Find an everyday analogy to the production of cytokines and histamines by the non-specific immune system?
o Cytokines cause you to have a fever
o Histamines - inflammation
A person suffers from a chronic infection and develops an abscess that produces pus. What is the cause of pus and what does it consist of?
Differentiate between the targets of the humoral versus the cell-mediated immune responses.
U.S. health officials are considering different ways of preparing for a future worldwide epidemic of human influenza that could be derived from a form of the disease that infects birds (avian flu). What actions would be useful in preventing a future influenza epidemic?
· Stay at home, sleep, & rest
· Take Antiviral Drugs
You suffer a bee sting that leaves a red mark and is warm as well as itchy. The best type of medication to treat this would be drugs to block the actions of which elements of your immune response?
o Ex. Benedryl
How does injecting a person with killed-bacteria vaccine protect that individual from a disease?
You have developed an antibiotic that inhibits a bacterial enzyme critical for the formation of the cell wall. However, after only a short time, the bacteria become resistant to the antibiotic, and it’s no longer effective. By which mechanism(s) could bacteria have developed resistance so that they are no longer sensitive to your antibiotic?
o Beneficial because it has the information for the resistance
List 4 items that have contributed to widespread antibiotic resistance.
· Not finishing round of biotics
· Not cooking food thoroughly
Why is it possible to get the flu during flu season when you have already been vaccinated for influenza?
You and your friend are babysitting the same small child, who is sick with chickenpox. You get sick, but your friend does not. Why?
Because your friend had chicken pox before and thus is immune to it.
By 1796 it had been observed that milk maids who had been exposed to cowpox did not succumb to the deadly plague of small pox that was ravishing both Europe and Britain. From this observation, Edward Jenner was able to construct the world’s first successful vaccine. Imagine that you are Jenner. Based on this observation in milkmaids, formulate a hypothesis that (as we know from history) will ultimately lead you to the creation of a vaccine.
Those that got infected by cow pox have immunity to small pox.
What is hydrogenation used for in commercial food manufacturing?
Hydrogenation is the artificial addition of hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fat. This can improve a food's taste, texture and shelf life.
Why are trans-fatty acids, which are common in fast food, a concern to nutritionists?
Because they can’t be digested by the human body and thus clog the arteries
What is the body mass index is used for?
An index of weight-for height that’s used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults.
One out of how many Americans has a BMI greater than 30? Is such a BMI considered overweight?
Which diseases are commonly associated with obesity?
What are the four stages of food processing (in order from beginning to end) in the human digestive process?
What are vitamins?
Organic compounds that are essential nutrients required by the body in small amounts for normal growth and health – more fragile, contain carbon, easily destroyed, make sure things are processed correctly
On food packages, “fibers” refers to plant material that we can’t fully digest but is important for maintaining a healthy digestive tract. Because of their chemical structure, “fibers” belong into which of three main food categories?
During the 1800s, the prevalence of scurvy among sailors who spent long periods at sea shed light on the importance of a healthy balanced diet. Scurvy is caused by a deficiency of vitamin C and leads to the degradation of the teeth and gums. Which type of foods were most lacking in the diet of sailors?
o Needed vitamin c
How is digestion different from absorption?
Animals fall into three categories based on their diet. What are these categories?
Human fat reserves enable a person of average body weight to survive without food for approximately how long?
Proteins are an essential component of a healthy diet for humans (and other animals). What is their most common purpose?
Raw material for growth.
Which type of molecule is our primary source of energy?
Why is fiber an important part of a healthful human diet?
Regulate digestive tract, speed the movement of chyme, and reduce colon cancer
(Why) are whole foods better for your health than processed foods?
There are two fundamentally different ways that organisms can get energy. First, they can make it themselves, such as plants do by photosynthesis. What is the second way?
Why is your BMI (Body Mass Index) not a perfectly reliable way to estimate your health?
o Muscle weighs more than fat
Why do we eat? Explain from a biological perspective.
Because organisms need energy.
During digestion, some carbohydrates release their energy very quickly, others much more slowly. List the main carbohydrate groups in order from fast to slow (or no) energy release.
o Releases energy quickly
o Releases energy slowly
o No energy release
Vitamins and minerals are consumed in much smaller amounts compared to other nutrients, such as proteins, carbs, & lipids. Why?
Photosynthesis of plants turns carbon dioxide, water and solar energy into sugar and oxygen. List three ways in which this process is fundamental for enabling all heterotrophic life, including humans.
Define and explain ‘omnivore’.
Eats plants and animals and can digest both efficiently
Define and explain ‘basal metabolic rate’.
o 4,200 calories (5 grams x 35 cal. x 24 hrs. = 4,200)
o weight x BMR x length
Describe/explain the key differences between type I & type II diabetes.
When a person absorbs more glucose from their diet than they need, what happens to the excess glucose?
It’s turned into glycogen and excess glycogen is usually released through your urine (water loss)
In what nutrient cycles do organisms play a significant role?
Where (at what level) does nitrogen enter the food chain?
What are the major differences between saturated and unsaturated fats?
The following nutritional information compares a bag of Potato Chips and a bag of Sun Chips. Which of these snacks is healthier and why?
o Less calories
o Less saturated fats
o Contains more “whole foods”
Carbohydrates are an excellent source of energy for the body. If a candy bar and a pear contain an equal number of Calories from carbohydrates, which is a healthier food and why?
The pear is healthier because it contains more vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
Most mammals (including humans) prefer the taste of fats to carbohydrates and proteins. Why?
Fat is stored energy (More calories per gram.)
Why must vegetarians worry about balancing complementary proteins?
Snake venom is a mixture of toxic proteins. If you "milked" a snake's venom into a glass and drank it, would it definitely harm you? Why or why not?
No. It wouldn’t necessarily harm you because the stomach acids and enzymes of the digestive system break down the proteins in snake venom.
If ingested food is absorbed in the small intestine, why is there an exit to the human digestive system?
People who eliminate fat from their diet often suffer from certain vitamin deficiencies. Why?
Rice is the main dietary staple in many countries. The rice in China, for example, is whole-grain rice, which needs to cook for 30 to 40 minutes. In contrast, the rice eaten in the United States is primarily processed and precooked for fast preparation. Why is the rice used in the US ‘enriched’ with vitamins and minerals, while the rice used in China is not?
What is the major difference between saturated and unsaturated fats from which all other differences follow?
o Unsaturated – double bonds
o Saturated – single bonds
Why do dieters lose a lot of weight during the first few days of dieting?
Does eating one pound of fat lead to the same, less or more weight gain than eating one pound of sugar?
o Fat – more weight gain
o Sugars – faster source of energy
Why do we break down food into smaller molecules during digestion?
Why is the carbon cycle biologically important?
o We need it to grow.
What has a stored record of diet?
Corn is detectable in our bodies by which element?
Of the many varieties of corn that came from Mexico, how many do we grow now?
What type of fertilizer did they use to grow their corn? What in this fertilizer is important for the plants? And why is it important?
Corn today gives us incredible yields, like 5 tons per acre. Is our current variety of corn engineered to produce more corncobs per plant, or is it engineered to tolerate planting more corn plants per acre?
More corn plants per acre
Their corn was genetically modified to tolerate what? Explain the significance of this modification for their crops.
You can’t directly eat the corn that is produced. It must be highly processed to become a food. True or False
10,000 lbs. of corn are produced on their plot. How much is exported or turned to ethanol? How much goes to high fructose corn syrup? How much is fed to animals for feed?
Cattle are given antibiotics to combat acidosis. What percent of antibiotics in the US goes to cattle?
Name the elements of biological literacy.
How does anecdotal evidence differ from scientific evidence?
Once we have a hypothesis, we use deductive reasoning to do what next?
Briefly define the placebo effect.
What is the purpose of double-blind experiments?
Minimize the effects of human bias on the results.
What best describes bias in an experiment?
What type of evidence MOST increases our confidence in a given experimental result?
Dr. Foster is studying the effectiveness of a new memory-boosting diet supplement. He posts an ad 4 subjects at 2 local colleges. He assigns 55 students from college A to the treatment group (daily doses of the diet supplement) and 60 students from college B (no supplement) to the control group. After 6 months of the study, Dr. Foster gives all of the students in each group a memory test. The treatment group scores an average of 20 points higher than the control group (a significant difference). Based on these findings Dr. Foster declares that the memory-boosting supplement helps increase your memory.
How would you improve the design of Dr. Foster study?
o Randomly assign students to one of the 2 conditions
o Give the control group a placebo supplement.
Why are correlations less convincing than controlled experimental results?
You note a fuzzy growth on some of the gels in your incubator. What is the name given to this step of the scientific method?
A pharmaceutical company is developing three new drugs against three potentially fatal diseases. The table below shows data from the first clinical test for each of the three drugs. The company debates which drug(s) should be invested in further. Which drug is the most effective at curing a potentially fatal infection?
What comes next in the scientific method after the completion of experimentation?
Before experimental drugs can be brought to market, they must undergo many rigorous trials to ensure they deliver their medical benefits effectively and safely. One method commonly used in this process is to compare the effect of a drug with that of a placebo in double-blind tests. Which of the following correctly describes a double-blind test.
Which of the following is an appropriate scientific hypothesis?
People catch colds because of exposure to cold temperature.
In class, we talked a lot about cold remedies and about how to test whether they work or not. Any scientific study needs a valid hypothesis to start from. Identify which is the only valid hypothesis and explain why the other hypotheses are not valid.
The Fresno Bird Count project has discovered that there are many more different bird species in affluent Fresno neighborhoods than in poor ones. Dr Katti suspects that rich neighborhoods have more bird species because they irrigate their gardens. Formulate a prediction that best follows from Dr. Katti’s hypothesis. Remember that predictions are “if ... then” statements.
Mehran has heard from some of his teammates that drinking a high protein supplement after football training will improve his muscle mass. He decides to test this hypothesis by examining the effect of a high protein drink on some of his teammates compared with what happens with a control group who drink only water. How could Mehran ensure that he has a good control group for his experiment?
The news channels are buzzing with a story that drinks containing high fructose corn syrup might cause obesity. Four scientific experts are battling it out, accusing each other of unsound science and overstating results. You are surfing online for the actual scientific studies to assess who of the four has the more solid scientific evidence. Which is the weakest study?
C) Ms. Bradley is an outside consultant who was conducting a clinical one-week food-safety study for a soda company. She found that rats did not gain weight when they had access to water as well as soda.
In a recent double-blind study, a dozen patients treated with a genetically engineered heart drug were able to walk on a treadmill for 26 seconds longer compared with before they received the drug, and they showed no side-effects. Can we conclude from this information that this drug is an effective treatment for heart disease? Explain your answer.
Explain why the following statement is NOT a good hypothesis for a scientific experiment:
"Reading books makes you a better person."
There isn’t an if, then statement.
If your hypothesis is "Echinacea reduces the duration and severity of the symptoms of the common cold," what is your null hypothesis?
Develop a reasonable experiment for the hypothesis: "All birds can fly".
Examine the list of all known species of birds and determine if any cannot fly.
What is the difference between an infection and an autoimmune disorder?
Autoimmune disorders are deadlier?
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!