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Which step(s) in the Hypothetico-Deductive Model of the scientific method is imagination needed?
In which situation is a dihybrid (two genes involved) cross likely to yield results that suggest complete linkage (complete dependent segregation)?
The two genes are on the same chromosome, but that are close to each other
At which state of meiosis do the tetrads line up on the equator of the spindle?
The design of a good experiment must include…
1-Variables which are different by only one factor from the controls
2- enough samples or subjects so that the results are statistically significant
3- random assignment?
Laban’s black goats were heterozygous for coat color
A scientific idea that is supported by much data and is generally accepted by scientist as true
A human disorder is likely to be due to genetics causes if it occurs…
In definite proportions among offspring
Eugenicists believed that feeble mindedness must be purged from the human population
1- One pair came from mother, one came from father;
2- tetrads are composed of pairs of replicated homologous chromosomes
3-they do not have same alleles.
At which stage of meiosis do the sister chromatids separate and move as indivudal chromosomes toward spindle poles?
A trisomy on which of the following chromosomes is most likely to have lethal consequences?
A large chromosome
Nondisjunction of the sex chromosomes in a woman could NOT lead to a child with the genotype
Staining sperm with a dye that binds DNA and then sorting the X bearing sperm from the Y bearing sperm on the basis of their DNA content, then artificial insemination
Which of the following could receive the hemophilia allele (not neccesarily affected) from a man suffering hemophilia (assume mother does not have allele) ?
All his daughters only
1. The cortical reaction results in the formation of the zona pellucida to form the fertilization envelope. The function of the fertilization envelope is to…
According to the 1989 report in the Class pack, the psychological responses of the USA women after obtaining legal abortion was generally…
Quite variable among different woman, and evidence collected could not be used to support either pro life or pro choice movements
Latex condoms are…
Sometimes compromised by the simultaneous use of oil based lubricants.
Soon after ovulation, the ruptured follicle…
Becomes the corpus luteum and produces progesterone
According to Dr. Weitzman’s lecture, which of the following is not true?
Eggs failing to enter the Fallopian tubes is a frequent diagnosis for females experiencing infertility
The total chromosome number in the somatic cells (i.e. body cells that do not include germ cells) of a person with Down syndrome is…
A pap smear is a swab of the ________ lining.
Sex influenced traits are:
Expressed in relation to the levels of sex hormones in males and females
As a consequence of the completion of meiosis with the male, a diploid germ cell (spermatogonium) normally produces how many mature sperm cells that are potentially capable of fertilizing an oocyte?
In women with “average” and regular menstrual cycles, ovulation usually occurs approximately how many days before the onset of the next mensutration?
RU-486 (the abortion pill) promotes pre mensutration by acting as an antagonist of…
-fusion of the sperm membrane with the oocyte’s membrane
-initiation of the second cycle of meiosis in the oocyte
-and a wave of release of the contents of the cortical granules into the space between the plasma membrane and the zona pellucida
In the male, testosterone acts by negative feedback to inhibit further production of:
Their progesterone levels are high in the blood circulation
Gurdon’s test of the Weissmann’s Hypothesis revealed that developmental determinants were probably not cell-specific GENES that segregate to different cells during development and specify developmental “fate” (i.e. the developmental destiny or outcome of a particular cell). Weissmann’s Hypothesis could still be true, however if the development determinates are considered to be:
Cytoplasmic factors (e.g. proteins and RNAs that are localized in the oocyte)
Based on the film “Life’s Greatest Miracle”, which of the following is true?
It is difficult to distinguish male and female fetuses by ultrasound early in pregnancy because the clitoris and the penis are the same size at this stage; the heart is one of the earliest organs to function in development; meiosis results in gametes, each of which has a unique combination of alleles; white blood cells might destroy the developing blastocyst, except that the blastocyst secrets immunosuppressants preventing this from happening
Alternative splicing of the pre mRNA into mRNA that is ready to be translated is important because
Anemia may result from…
Decrease in # of RBC
presence of abnormal hemoglobin
reduction in overall amount of hemoglobin
reduction in overall amount of one of the subunits of hemoglobin in the RBCs due to splicing of the hemoglobin RNA
How many DNA molecules (=double helices) are found in the nucleus of a mature human sperm cell?
Select the incorrect association:
Decondensed chromatin—mostly inactive genes during interphase
According to the article “Decoding the Human Body”, the Human Genome Project accelerated the sequencing of the human genome in 1998 because of
The compeititon from private companies like Celera Genomics
According to “Life’s greatest miracle”, what is responsible for moving the oocyte down the Fallopian tubes towards the uterus?
Cilia lining the inside of the tubes
Determined to become an optic nerve and retinal tissue and about to induce the embryos skin to form the progenitor to a lens
Suppose you put the nucleus of an adult intestine cell into an egg that has lost its own nucleus. This cell develops into an abnormal embryo, but if a nucleus is removed from this abnormal embryo and reimplanted into another egg that has lost its own nucleus, the resulting cell develops into a complete organism. This experiment and its result specifically support which of the following statements?
A nucleus from a differentiated tissue requires a substantial time of exposure to egg cytoplasm in order to de-differentiate
Which of the following statements about development is true?
-Cells communicate with each other and can induce differentiation in a neighboring cell,
-cells can move around during development and take up a new position in the embryo
Differentiation begins to occur when a cell
Begins to synthesize cell type specific proteins
Produces hormones, acts as a shock absorber, provides nutrients to the fetus, removes waste
If PKU is detected early enough, it is possible to avoid mental retardation by:
Restricted diet for phenylaline
Which of the following matches between molecule and function is not correct?
tRNA- RNA that is necessary for transcription
Gene X has 3 exons and 2 introns. Which of the following mutations is unlikely to have a harmful effect on the enzyme specified by the gene?
More than one is unlikely (listed above)
In the control of the lactose operon or bacteria, repressor can bind to
Imagine a bacterial cell, which has been exposed to lactose, and therefore is likely making mRNA. After a time, all of the lactose is digested. What will happen in the cell?
Lactase mRNA will be degraded
Which of the following is NOT an application of biotechnology on plants that has been accomplished or is currently under development? Transgenic plants that produce…
Which of the following statements about plasmids is NOT true?
They carry large number of genes
Assuming that each of the following diseases is “caught” in an early enough state, which of the following is LEAST likely to be cured by treatment with an appropriate antibiotic?
Viruses multiply in host cells because…
Viruses take over the transcriptional and translational operations in a host cell
According to the article “The Fight Against the Flu” in your Class Pack, which of the following is a reason that China provides an ideal environment for the evolution of a flu virus that could explode onto the human population with pandemic proportions?
China has high population density, lots of domesticated birds, humans and domesticated animals live in close contact, they have lots of domesticated pigs that can provide a host for the evolution of bird flu to mammals, and the public health system doesn’t work well
A new virus is discovered which specifically prevents the production of antibodies. What kind of immune system cell is this virus most likely to be attacking?
Histamine stimulates blood vessels to…
Dilate (increase in diameter to increase blood flow)
Proteins that combine and embed in a pathogenic cell’s membrane
An immune response against our own cells and tissues
Breast feeding a baby is beneficial because breast milk (and colostrum)…
Provides antibodies, contains lysosome to inhibit bacteria, reduces incidents of infections and diseases
In his lecture on ethics and biological enhancement, Dr. Michael Bess discussed the possible future of human communities. Which of the following statements would Dr. Bess probably NOT agree with?
Discrimination and prejudice will be less of a problem in the future because people with different characteristics from the average can be modified to fit those of everyone else
Bovine growth hormone is often administered to cows to increase
Which of the following was a more common cause of death in 1900 than it was in 1984?
In the article “the Incredibles,” there was a section on designer children. The authors discussed using Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis to select an embryo for implantation that would lead to a child that…
Would be a good immunological stem cell donor for an older sibling with anemia
The membrane attack complex
Opens holes in bacterial membranes
Which of the following bacterial diseases has led to the development of useful treatments for human problems that are unrelated to disease?
Dr. Bess would likely NOT agree with which statement?
As in changes that have occurred in pat human history, we will probably adapt to changes related to human enhancement without major changes in society
Substance that kills bacteria, enzyme, sweat and tears
By phagocytosis, macrophages can…
Antibodies are composed of
Imagine a pathogen that kills only B Cells. If a person is infected with this pathogen, what do you think the major consequences will be?
Inactivation of viral particles that are floating freely in the blood will be impaired
Of the following, which is an environmental carginogen that is documented to currently cause the highest incidence of cancers in the USA?
Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects circulating blood cells. Which of the following standard therapies would most likely be used to treat leukemia?
In which of the following tissues is cancer MOST likely to occur in adults in the USA?
What organ is the most common site of metastatis?
Which of the following options is NOT correct: in her lecture on Genetic Counseling, Ms. Cohen said that a good genetic counselor should…
Help the patient by telling them what the counselor would do if presented with the same choices
According to the article Evolution of a Scientist, which of the following was NOT true about Charles Darwin?
Darwin was anti Christian from a young age and remained so all his life
According to “Frequently Asked Questions about Evolution and the Nature of Science” and Dr. Johnson, “punctuated equilibrium refers to…
The hypothesis that rates of evolution vary enormously over geological time
Dr. Ellen Clayton told a case about a person named Terri Seargent who had good job evaluations and subsequently she was diagnosed with Alpha-1-antitryspin Deficiency (A1AD). What happened afterwards?
Her job evaluations suddenly got worse and she was fired
Which of the following methods is used to assign the dates to fossils so that we know how old they are?
Measuring the amount of decay of radioactive atoms that were incorporated into the organism when it was alive
Survival of the Fittest is a good descriptor of the most important action of Natural Selection
Selection (natural or artificial) on this gene
Chemotherapy has deleterious side-effects because
the treatments harm normal growing cells in addition to cancer cells.
What is the major reason why benign tumors are less serious than malignant tumors?
______ to assess the spread of a cancerous tumor
In his article about evolution and the “Alabama insert” in the "Evolution Reading.pdf" on OAK, Richard Dawkins says that evolution and natural selection is . . .
like a bank robber who is trying to open a safe that gives clues to its combination.
Which of the following is NOT evidence that is used to support the theory of evolution?
the age of the earth has been shown by geological evidence to be about 400,000 years
Which of the following is NOT true of Natural Selection?
Natural Selection always acts to ensure that "survival" and "reproductive fitness" are directly correlated (i.e., go together).
f you could NOT "taste" the PTC paper distributed in class, your genotype must be:
Which of the following factors might disrupt the genotype frequencies for a particular gene of a population that is initially at Hardy/Weinberg equilibrium for that gene?
the population prevents people with obvious genetic diseases from mating.
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