Caroline Kinney Professor Smoak Biology Lab November 5, 2009 Introduction In the process of cellular respiration, organic molecules become oxidized and release energy, which is stored in chemical bonds known as ATP. The energy stored in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) allows the organism to reproduce, transport, contract muscles, and remove wastes. During photosynthesis, energetic electrons that come from the splitting of H2O are passed to CO2, which reduces CO2 to “energy-storing sugars”; respiration takes away an electron and captures some of the energy stored in ATP, which passes the electrons to oxygen and H2O is formed (Vodopich and Moore, 2008). For most cells, glycolysis is the first step to respiration where energy released from a glucose molecule is stored in ATP. With or without oxygen, glycolysis can take place. Aerobes are organisms that use oxygen for respiration beyond glucose, while anaerobes are organisms that live without oxygen (Raven et al, 2008). In this experiment, the production of carbon dioxide during anaerobic fermentation was tested. Pyruvate, magnesium sulfate, sodium fluoride, and glucose were used in this experiment to demonstrate the production of carbon dioxide during anaerobic fermentation by yeast under each compound. The results of the production of carbon dioxide of each test tube were compared to one another so that we could observe the effects that these compounds had on the respiration process. Results Comparing fermentation test tube 1 to fermentation test tube 2, is clear that there was a significant increase of carbon dioxide production in fermentation test tube 2, due to the fact that it had a solution of 5% glucose and fermentation test tube 1 did not. Comparing fermentation test tube 2 to fermentation test tube 3, the carbon dioxide production in test tube 3 decreased from test tube 2 due to the addition of magnesium sulfate in test tube 3. Comparing fermentation test tube 4 to fermentation test tube 5, carbon dioxide production increased from test tube 4 to test tube 5 due to the increase of sodium fluoride in test tube 5. Comparing fermentation test tube 5 to fermentation test tube 6, carbon dioxide production increased from test tube 5 to test tube 6 due to the increase of the Na pyruvate in test tube 6. Literature Cited Raven, Johnson, Losos, Mason, and Singer. 2008. Biology. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill. Vodopich and Moore. 2008. Biology: Univeristy of South Caorlina Upstate, Natural Sciences. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.