Shape like bacteria some have odd shapes some extremophiles peptiodoglycan usually absent cell memebrane differs from bacteria
Archae cell membrane is composed of
phosphate head and lipid tails
What are methanogens?
they live in anaerobic conditions, and produce methane as a waste product
What are psychrophiles?
they live in very cold environments
What happens in glycolsis?
breakdown of sugars, 6 carbon sugars split into two 3 carbon sugars, which are then oxidzed to form 2 molecules of pyruvate
Krebs cycle steps?
pyruvate molecules decomposed to co2 gas, completes oxidation of organic molecules, transfering e- esulting in NADH and FADH2( donates e- to electron transport chain
Where does glycolsis, krebs cycles, and electron transport occur in prokaryote and eukaryote?
cytosol and plasma membrane in pro, mitochondria in eukaryotes.
An alternate path to cellular respiration in some prokaryotes is?
fermentation: partial breakdown of sugars without the aid of oxygen, low amounts of ATP produced proton motive force absent.
Carbon chain form what basic structure for cell?
cell wall, cell membrane, food, and is a main component of fossil fuels.
Who are the ancestors of eukaryotes and are as evolved, maybe even more evolved?
Cell membrane is the? Cell wall is the?
cell membrane separates inside from outside, cell wall is the1st barrier inside organism from outside
What is the source of individual variation in pro?
What is the terminal e- acceptor of aerobic respiration?
Chemical sources of energy of organic molecules is?
What is the key junction in breaking down complex molecule to simpler ones?
What is alcohol fermentation?
3 carbon pyruvate are converted to acetaldehyde
Similarities and Differences of cell respiration and fermentation
CELL RESPIRATION: yields about 38 ATP, often requires oxygen, provides energy for cell functions, and glycolosis, krebs cycle and electron transport happen FERMENTATION: only yields 2 ATP, oxygen is not needed, provide energy.Glycolosis only.
What are the problems that must be solved during nutrient uptake and digestion?
how to collect raw materials and energy required for growth, process complex substrates into simpler form that can be utilized
What are Heterotrophs?
steal from others, they must extract chemical energy and needed organic molecules from either autotrophs or other heterotroph.
Macronutrients of Autotrophs?
water, inorganic carbon source( Co2 CH4), nitrogen, > Na K P S Mg
Micronutrients of Autotrophs/ Heterotrophs?
other trace elements( Fe Cu B Mo Ni Si Mn ....
Unicellular and filamentous morphologies of cyanobacteria, a member of the photoautotrophic prokaryotes?
Cell walls are similar to gram - bacteria contains chlorophyll contains heterocysts
where nitrogen fixation occurs for cyanobacteria
CYCLES AND NEWS STORIES!
Some nutrients come from?
soil characterized by weather rocks, living and nonliving enitites, natural causes, human activities
Autotrophs synthesize and metabolize?
What is the terminal e- acceptor of Anaerobic respiration?
NO3, SO4, Fe3 Co3
The chemical sources of energy for inorganic molecules?
H2S H2 Fe2
What pathways do facultative anaerobes use?
anaerobic fermentation aerobic respiration
What is lactic fermentation
Pyruvate is reduced to lactate
Archae is most distantly related to?
What does ATP do?
transport materials pump ions to membrane or proteins move flagella maintain or change shape, grow and reproduce
_______ takes up nutrients to obtain carbon to build organic molecules of their cells
What are autotrophs?
make from scratch converts inorganic elements into organic molecules( fixations) and cptures chemical energy from non living sources
Macronutrients for Heterotroph
water, fixed carbon, fixed nitrogen, free minerals( Na K P Ca)
Micronutrients for Heterotrophs?
organice vitamines, and co-factors such as b-series, biotin, folic acid
What is Fixation?
non biologically available elements and transforms it to forms for use in biological processed
One of the most independent organisms on earth is?
Who are the autotrophs?
unicellular, and multicellular organisms nitrogen fixing bacteria some use methane, high energy sulfur compounds generated by geological processes.
heterotrophs just metabolize what?
What are chemoheterotrophs
organic compound is both the carbon source, and energy source, but specific carbon source varies majority in pro
All major metabolism and nutritional modes All gram positives here and some negative Peptidoglycan present
Phospholipid molecules in membranes of Archae and Bacteria