The Biology of AIDS HIV-1 Pandemic Glossary: Terms & Abbreviations AIDS ? acquired immunodeficiency syndrome HIV ? human immunodeficiency virus Viral load ? amount of virus in bodily fluid; measure of severity of viral infection (e.g., RNA copies per ml blood plasma); Amplicor HIV-1 monitor test or ?PCR test? Glossary (cont.) Retrovirus ? RNA virus; obligate cellular parasite; DNA produced from its RNA via enzyme reverse transcriptase; e.g., HIV, HTLV, Rous sarcoma virus cell receptor ? cell surface protein used by another entity (molecule, cell, virus, etc.) to bind to the cell surface Glossary (cont.) CD4 ? Helper T cell surface receptor used by HIV to infect T cells CCR5/CXCR4 - T cell chemokine receptors used by HIV to adhere to and infect T helper cells Chemokine ? small molecules secreted by cells that possess biological activity (cytokines) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Immune System Innate Immune System Adaptive Immune System Non-specific immunity Antigen-independent response Immediate maximal response Exposure results in no immunologic memory Specific immunity Antigen-dependent response Lag time between exposure and maximal response Exposure results in immunologic memory Microbiology and Immunology On-line Innate (non-specific) Immunity 1. Anatomical barriers to infections: mechanical factors; chemical factors; and biological factors 2. Humoral barriers to infection: complement system; lactoferrin; lysozyme; etc. 3. Cellular barriers to infection: neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, eosinophils, etc. Wikipedia Adaptive (acquired) Immune System The recognition of specific ?non-self? antigens in the presence of ?self?, during the process of antigen presentation. The development of immunological memory, in which each pathogen is ?remembered? by a signature antibody. Memory cells can be called upon to quickly eliminate a pathogen should subsequent infections occur. The generation of responses that are tailored to maximally eliminate specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Wikipedia Helper T cells (T lymphocytes) CD4+ T cell B cell CD8+ T cell CD4 CCR5 Antibody response(s) Infected cell elimination HIV elimination of TH -- > X X The Ultimate Goal: Eliminate AIDS Vaccine development ? protect individuals from becoming infected with the HIV virus CCR5-Delta 32 Block the entry of HIV into cells without deactivating the helper cells (Ibalizumab; Vicriviroc; Aplaviroc; Maraviroc; PRO140) AIDS-Defining Conditions Candidiasis Cervical cancer (invasive) Coccidioidomycosis, Cryptococcosis, Cryptosporidiosis Cytomegalovirus disease Encephalopathy (HIV-related) Herpes simplex (severe infection) Histoplasmosis Isosporiasis Kaposi?s sarcoma Lymphoma (certain types) Mycobacterium avium complex Pneumocystis carnii/jiroveci pneumonia Pneumonia (recurrent) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Salmonella septicema (recurrent) Toxoplasmosis of the brain Tuberculosis Wasting syndrome CDC, Dec. 1992
Want to see the other 14 page(s) in BIOAIDSbbh101_2.pptx?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!