Identify the top 3 causes of death in the USA. Why is the number of deaths rising due to these diseases? How does diet and lifestyle contribute to the growth of these diseases?
1. cardiovascular disease
3. chronic lower respiratory disease
technology and automation has led the number of deaths to rise due to lack of physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and excessive use of alcohol.
sedentary lifestyles and poor diets increase chances of having these diseases.
How is obesity defined? What diseases are associated with being overweight and/or obese? What lifestyle changes contribute to weight gain and how can a person overcome obesity?
obesity is condition of having too much body fat and has BMI of 30+ or is 30lbs over recommended weight--now categorized as a chronic disease as well.
cardiovascular disease and cancer are associated with obesity.
weight gain contributors: decreased activity levels, poor diet, evidence of atherosclerosis.
exercise is best long-term weight loss plan--diet alone does not have the same effect as diet and exercise combined.
What are some key goals of the Healthy People 2020 initiative and what are the rationales behind these goals?
1. attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, or premature death.
2. achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.
3. create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
4. promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.
What is cardiovascular disease and who does it affect?
describes a range of diseases that affect blood vessels--includes arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, and heart failure.
600,000 or 1 in 4 adults die every year.
effects people with: sedentary lifestyles, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smokers.
What is the “silent killer”?
Familiarize yourself with cholesterol (know normal values), blood pressure (know normal values), diabetes, and other common diseases in America.
cholesterol: HDL >40 LDL <130 and total below 200mg. borderline high = 200-239mg and high risk is 240+mg
diabetes: 7th leading cause of death, blood sugar can't enter cells because the pancreas cannot produce insulin. type I (juvenile) is pancreas not producing, type II is cells not accepting insulin and is most common in population and among overweight/obese people
common diseases: arthritis and osteoporosis
What is the recommended amount of physical exercise?
2 hours 30 minutes of moderate-intensity cardio per week or 1 hour 15 minutes of vigorous-intensity cardio per week and 2+ days a week of strength training.
Familiarize yourself with the different fitness assessments and what each one measures. What does a comprehensive fitness assessment involve and what is its role in health management?
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q): qualifies person for activity levels and identifies individuals who need further evaluation.
Physiological Assessments: biometric screening--resting heart rate and blood pressure measured.
Body Measurement (antrhopometric assessment): determines if weight and fat percentages are in healthy/unhealthy ranges.
BMI: determines if weight is consistent with height and sets obesity standards.
Body Fat Percentage
Underwater Weighing: compare out of water and underwater weight, more fat weighs less in water
Skinfold Assessment: measures subcutaneous fat and taken on right side of body
Bioelectrical Impedance: electrical current run through body to estimate body fat and lean body mass.
Comprehensive Fitness Assessment: involves series of measurements to determine health and fitness level--good representation of fitness level and on-going needs but not to replace a medical examination.
Body composition can be an indication of risk for certain diseases. How can body composition be used as part of a fitness program?
body composition can be used as part of fitness program by determining BMI, underwater weighing, skinfold assessment, and bioelectrical impedance. assessments will evaluate whether composition is at healthy or unhealthy stage and will determine obesity.
What is BMI?
Body Mass Index is method for determining if weight is appropriate for height.
BMI = 703 X (weight lbs.)/(height in.^2)
= (weight kg.)/(height in.^2)
desirable range: 18.5-24.9
increased risk: 25.0+
What is the difference between overweight and obese?
overweight: BMI 25.0-29.9
obese: BMI 30.0-40.0+
What kind of information is gained from a postural assessment?
posture assessment help determine any gross deviations in overall posture--pronation distortion syndrome, lower crossed syndrome, and upper crossed syndrome.
looks at length of muscles, recruitment of muscles, joint mechanics, and functional strength.
What are the 3 macronutrients? What are the recommended intake ranges for each?
protein: 10-30%/.4g per lbs body weight (approx. half your weight in pounds)
What are micronutrients?
vitamins and minerals
What are some risks associated with high sugar intake? Risks from high saturated and trans fat intake? What kinds of foods are likely to cause these?
high sugar intake: excess calorie consumption, diabetes, obesity, and liver disease
high saturated/trans fat intake: LDL increase, increase risk of heart disease, lowers good cholesterol.
What are potential benefits AND risks associated with dietary supplements?
benefit: help meet nutrient deficiencies caused by poor diet
risk: nutrient toxicity
A common misconception is that eating fat causes weight gain. What causes weight gain?
consuming excess fat/excess calories in general
How does energy balance relate to weight loss?
energy is found from calories, weight stays stable when calories in=calories out, reducing calories in and/or increasing exercise will result in weight loss
What does the evidence show regarding high protein/low carbohydrate diets?
Not most successful way to lose weight--should be eating majority of healthy carbs in diet because that is where the most energy comes from.
high protein/low carb is effective for short term weight loss but inconclusive for the long term and hard to adhere to
What are 5 barriers preventing people from beginning an exercise program or engaging in daily physical activity? What is the most cited barrier?
1. lack of time
2. unrealistic goals/expectations
3. poor social support networks
5. lack of convenience
time is most cited
managing stress is important element in change and improved quality of life
stress can be beneficial--eustress like playing sports/starting new job
negative stress--distress that makes health deteriorate
stress can be physical, social, or psychological and can raise risk for hypertension/coronary heart disease/depression
stress managed by fight/flight mechanism--originates in hypothalamus and pituitary gland--increase everything necessary for either fighting or fleeing
body wants to keep homeostasis which is disrupted by stress
response to stress: alarm reaction stage, resistance development stage, exhaustion stage
What are some reasons many people have trouble changing unhealthy lifestyle habits?
3 impediments for behavioral change
1. competence--don't have skills necessary for tasks that friends are doing
2. confidence--you have required skill necessary for task but don't believe you can do it
3. motivation--intrinsic and extrinsic motivators don't encourage change
extrinsic motivators are for short term success
intrinsic motivation results in long term adherence
What are SMART goals?
What are the three syndromes associated with poor posture? What are their effects, and what kind of exercises can address them?
upper crossed syndrome: rounded shoulders and forward head--tightness of chest and upper neck muscles and weakness of mid back and rotator cuff--stretch using mayofascial release and do floor/stability ball cobra.
lower crossed syndrome: arched lower back with pelvis tilted forward having lowback and hamstring strain--tight hip flexors, weak gluteals/abdominals--stretch with self mayofascial and static stretch for hip flexor and do core and glute strengthening exercises like floor/ball bridge.
pronation distortion syndrome: flat feet and feet turned inward--knee, ankle, and foot pain, tightness in calves and inner thighs and weak foot and ankle stabilizers--stretch with roller and static for calves and inner thighs, strengthen outer hip, foot, and ankle stabilizers--do tube walking and single leg balance reach.
What can positively and negatively affect flexibility?
positive: heat or ice, active lifestyle, flexibility programs
joint mobility found by ability to move joint through complete range of motion as dictated by complete extensibility of soft tissue under control
5 types of flexibility training? What are some benefits and precautions for each?
self mayo-fascial release (foam rolling): focuses on nueral and fascial system, works out muscle adhesions, removes, knots, reduces pain and tension, allows for better static stretching, same precautions as hands-on massage.
static stretching: most common, relaxes and elongates muscles, improves joint ROM, improves posture, improves ability to move, decreases injury, used as warmup/cool down, precaution for injured muscles
dynamic stretching: increases heart rate/respiration, gets oxygen going, reduces muscle tightness and improves performance, enhances nervous system's ability to contract muscles forcefully, precaution for people with lack of core/balance and people with chronic disease/injuries.
yoga: improves physiological/emotional well being, reduces stress/blood pressure/hypertension/cholesterol, precaution for hypertensive/diabetes/pregnant people.
pilates: reduction in lower back pain, improved posture/flexibility/muscular endurance/balance, precaution for hypertensive/diabetes/pregnant people.
What are some risks associated with poor flexibility?
decreased ability to maintain good posture and movement patterns leading to poor performance in daily activities and athletic activities.
What has research shown to be the usual causes of lower-back pain? How does core training help prevent and rehabilitate this condition?
core training helps because it restores the size, activation, and endurance of core muscles, also reduces risk for injury.
What is the difference between core and balance training? What is the focus of each? Why is understanding this important?
core training: strengthen abdominals, have flat attractive mid section, improves overall function and prevents injury and pain.
balance training: improve joint stabilization, prevent injury, viewed as static but is really dynamic, control the center of gravity over base of support.
balance training fills the gap left by other training.
What is the cardiorespiratory/cardiovascular system?
cardiovascular/respiratory system that provides blood. oxygen, and protective agents, and removes waste products in the body.
What is the cardiorespiratory/cardiovascular system comprised of?
heart, blood, blood vessels
Benefits of good cardiorespiratory fitness? Results of poor cardiorespiratory fitness?
benefits: reduces premature death, prevents future chronic disease, reduced risk of obesity/diabetes/heart disease/cancer, decreased levels of cholesterol/blood pressure, increases athletic performance/sense of wellbeing/immunity, decreases stress/fatigue/anxiety/depression
poor: premature death from cardiovascular disease
Difference between aerobic and anaerobic training?
aerobic: prolonged low-intensity, use oxygen to convert carbs/fat to energy, walking/biking/skiing/etc
anaerobic: high-intensity activity, oxygen supply inadequate, relies on carbohydrates, energy produced is limited, 100m sprint/shot put/high intensity weight training/etc.
What is the F.I.T.T.E. principle?
principle used to determine training recommendations per individuals
How is cardio intensity measured? Why is this important to designing a cardio program?
measured on a scale of 1-10 and ability to hold conversation resulting in increased heart rate--perceived exertion scale of 1-10
important because it helps build a cardio program and prevent injury and measure progress
Be familiar with the work-out zones and stages of exercise.
interval training progressing to circuit training
interval: work to rest ratio, small work and long rest transitioning into long work small rest for increasing intensity
circuit: warmup/stretch, circuit of different exercises performed in allotted time, cool down/stretch
What are some health benefits of strength training for general fitness? For athletes and participants in sports?
important for athletic performance and daily activities
improves in bone density
controls blood sugar
heart rate/blood pressure decrease
increases strength/muscular endurance
maintains lean body mass
improves body composition
improves joint integrity
What is strength, endurance, hypertrophy, etc?
strength: the ability of the neuromuscular system to provide internal tension and exert force against external resistance
endurance: increasing muscles' capacity to work for an extended period of time
hypertrophy: increased muscle mass via strength training which increases metabolic rate, encouraging weight loss via increased calorie expenditure
Correct progression for developing strength?
beginning program: start slow, adapt with time, lift light at first, focus on posture/muscular endurance/coordination
over time: add weight, add volume, add velocity
progression = stabilization, strength, power
stabilization: resistance stabilization exercises to help improve posture/coordination
strength: building muscle size/maximum strength
power: associated with sports but also for daily life, creates overload and adaptation
Why is strength training important to functional movement?
important for daily living because it is important for injury prevention
What are the 3 types of muscle contractions?
concentric: exerts more force than placed on it, shortens muscle
isometric: exerts force equal to that placed on it, no effect on muscle length, like the pauses at the top of exercise
eccentric: less force that placed on it, lengthens the muscle, known as the negative, like the downward phase of bicep curl (most injuries occur in this phase)
What are the 5 checkpoints to ensure proper posture during exercise? Describe the correct position for each checkpoint.
1. feet pointing straight ahead
2. knees pointing straight ahead and aligned over toes
3. low back in neutral position without arching or rounding
4. shoulders back
5. head in neutral position, not jutted forward
Preliminary health screening. What is it and why did you have to do it?
preliminary health screening includes medical history questionnaire, review of chronic disease risk factors, and presence of any signs/symptoms of disease through PAR-Q, resting heart rate, body composition assessment, cardiorespiratory assessment and muscular endurance assessment.
had to do it because it is important to have a baseline against which you can measure progress once you start an exercise plan--allows you to know where to start, how to modify and progress, and what your progression has been.
Resting Heart Rate. What is it and why were you asked to do it?
RHR is the number of beats per minute after resting 5 minutes in quiet environment--typically between 60 and 100 bpm and can be used for the calculation of exercise intensity for aerobic exercise.
did it to see how strong my heart is because a lower RHR means heart is stronger and pumping efficiently
Body Composition. What is it and why were you asked to do it? Which type is more accurate? Pros and Cons on BMI & BIA?
body composition assessment determines if individual's weight and fat percentages are in healthy ranges by calculating BMI and BIA.
did it to see where we stand in terms of the healthy weight to fat ratio ranges
BMI pro: consistent and fairly accurate
BMI con: fails to differentiate fat mass from lean body mass
BIA pro: differentiates between fat mass and lean body mass
BIA con: hydration levels can skew results and quality of technology matters
Cardiorespiratory assessment. What is it and why were you asked to do it?
cardiorespiratory assessment provides valuable information regarding cardiorespiratory efficiency and overall condition and provides starting point for determining the appropriate intensity when beginning training program.
did it to find cardiorespiratory training zone, or target heart rate to know starting place for cardiorespiratory exercise training so that we can progress safely
Muscular Endurance assessment. What is it and why were you asked to do it?
muscular endurance test measures ability of muscle to exert sub-maximal force repeatedly over time--measured by performing multiple repetitions of a particular exercise over certain length of time (push up test and 1 minute sit up test and sit and reach)
did this to find a baseline for muscular fitness and develop a base to work from
Flexibility Assessment. What is it and why were you asked to do it?
flexibility assessment done through sit and reach test to measure flexibility of hamstrings and lower back muscles
asked to do it to see how flexible we are and figure out if improvements need to be made
Review nutrition basics (macro and micro nutrients)
protein- made of amino acids (building block of body) responsible for growth and repair of tissue, support for immune system, and synthesising hormones and enzymes. there are complete and incomplete proteins depending on how many essential amino acids the protein contains. not considered a primary energy source for regular activity. 10-35% of daily calories.
fat- three types--saturated, trans, and unsaturated. saturated is found mostly in animal products and can increase LDL. trans-fats are partially hydrogenated oils, they increase bad cholesterol and lower good cholesterol. unsaturated are liquid at room temperature. essential fats are omega 3s or 6s.
carbohydrates- classified as sugars, starches, and fiber and should take up the bulk of the diet because they provide the best energy--when adequate carbs are provided lean muscle mass will be preserved.
vitamins- substances required in small amounts for normal growth/development/reproduction. extract energy from food and regulate bodily processes.
minerals- essential for bodily structures and regulation. insufficient intake and excessive intake can harm health.
Review your week long tracking, and reflect on any changes that you have made since.
What was the goal of this lab? (core and balance training)
goal to practice core and balance exercise techniques
core training- prevents injury, necessary for performing dynamic activities, core is base for all limb movements
balance training- makes physical activity easier and prevents injury, maintains functional independence
Why were you asked to do it? (core and balance training)
developing core stabilization and strength and balance stabilization is important as a base for future activities and so you can do exercises stronger and better and help guard against aging
Which muscle groups are important for daily stabilization?
rectus abdominis- six pack
back extensor- vertically up back of spine
transversus abdominis- horizontally across bowl created by hips
What was the goal of this lab? (self-mayofascial release & resistance training)
goal is to show how flexibility is key component for fitness because it increases joint ROM, relieves joint stress, improves elasticity of muscles/connective tissue, improves neuromuscular efficiency, and improves overall functioning for daily activities.
goal is to teach self-mayofascial release and resistance training
show how resistance training improves bone density, decreases risk for osteoporosis, controls blood sugar, benefits endocrine and serum lipid adaptations because heart and blood pressure decrease with strength training
Why were you asked to do it? (self-mayofascial release & resistance training)
learn about flexibility benefits and the ways to improve flexibility and learn forms of resistance training to incorporate it into our exercise plans going forward
What are other terms to use for what you performed in this lab? (self-mayofascial release & resistance training)
rolling out knots, foam rolling, SMR, self-massage, static stretching, dynamic stretching, active stretching, resistance straining, strength training, etc.
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