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what is the central metabolic pathway for glucose?
Is glycolysis anaerobic or aerobic?
anaerobic- doesn't need oxygen.
Where does glucose come from?
dietary carbohydrates such as starch, glycogen
What breaks down starch and glycogen to maltose and maltotriose?
what breaks down maltose and maltoriose into glucose?
maltase and alpha-glucosidase
what breaks down limit desxtrin (
α-1,6) into glucose?
what sucrose break down into?
glucose + fructose
what does lactase break down into?
glucose and galactose
how is glucose trapped inside the cell through its phosphorylation?
Glucose is imported by a membrane transporter and when it's phosphorylated, the membrane transporter doesn't recognize the glucose phosphate and thus, it's trapped inside the cell.
what is the purpose of GLUT 1 AND GLUT 3? where is it located?
basal glucose uptake. located in all mammalian tissues.
What is the role of GLUT2?
In the pancreas, plays a role in the regulation of insulin.
In the the liver, removes excess glucose from the blood.
Why does GLUT2 have the highest Km?
Because it has the highest Km, glucose only enters these tissues at a biologically significant rate only when there is much glucose in the blood.
What is the function of GLUT4?
Transports glucose into muscle and fat cells. The amount in muscle plasma membrane increases with endurance training.
What is the function of the GLUT5?
A fructose transporter
what are the 3 steps that summarize the first stage of glycolysis?
phosphorylation, isomerization, phosphorylation
How many ATP is consumed in the first step of glycolysis?
True of False. 1,3-BPG has a high phosphoryl-transfer potential.
The final stage consists of what two steps?
1. oxidation of the aldehyde to carboxyl group.
2. acyl-phosphate formation by dehydrogenation.
what reaction is called a substrate-level phosphorylation? Why?
1-3-bisphosphoglycerate ----> 3-phosphoglycerate
Because the 1,3-BPG has a high phosphoryl-transfer potential
What vitamin do we need to make NAD(P)?
niacin or Vitamin B3
what are the two ways to regenerate NAD+?
2. acetaldehyde ---> ethanol pathway
what are reducing equivalents
molecules with electrons bound to the carrier which can release energy when the molecule is oxidized (NADH, FADH2)
why is fermentation for important alternative?
Because some organisms cannot live in contact with oxygen.
What type of glycolysis do tumor cells use to generate lactate?
What is the purpose of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1) in tumor cells?
Since tumor cells use aerobic glycolysis, it depletes the oxygen. Thus, it will enhance tumor growth by using the transcription factor HIF-1.
what is the cause of lactose intolerance?
the cause is decreased levels of lactase
What is the cause of galactosemia?
caused by the lack of enyzme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. causes galactose to be turn into galictitol.
what are the three controls sites in glycolysis?
what is the pacemaker of glycolysis?
hexokinase is inhibited by what in the control of glycolysis in most tissues?
inhibited by its product glucose-6 phosphate
what is affected by the ratio of ATP/AMP?
what is pyruvate kinase allosterically affected by?
ATP/AMP and alanine
In the liver hexokinase, there is glucokinase. What is its role?
to phosphyorylate glucose only when glucose is abundant b/c it has more affinity for hexokinase.
why does glucokinase have low affinity for glucose?
To give brain and muscles first call on glucose when supply is limited and ensures that glucose is not wasted.
in the liver, phosphofructokinase is controlled by what?
ATP/AMP ratio(high energy): inhibitor
high citrate: inhibitor
In the liver, what form is pyruvate kinase in?
What is pyruvate kinase inhibited by and triggered by what hormone?
It is inhibited by phosphorylation(covalent modification). Triggered by glucagon.
In the liver pyruvate kinase, what are the three levels that affect it?
phosphorylation (covalent modification)
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