The ?King? urges you to study BIODIVERSITY-TOPICS News from the Field What is biodiversity? What are the levels of biodiversity? Examples and locations of biodiversity loss What are the consequences of the loss of biodiversity? Variety of trees - Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cove Mountain from overlook, Tennessee. Loss of Biodiversity: Threatened and Endangered Species Orangutan Snow Leopard Curaco 140463 White-Handed Gibbon. News from the Field The most comprehensive study to date revealed that 11,000 plants and animals are in danger of extinction (World Conservation Union - 7000 species experts). ?This time we were scared by our own results.? At least another 5,000 on the brink of being threatened. 1/4 mammals are at risk. 1/8 birds are at risk. 1/5 of all of the animal and plant species could be gone by 2030 Conservationists estimate current extinction rate is 1,000-10,000 times higher than under natural conditions. Indicates a modern- human caused mass extinction Fig. 4-12, p. 93 Five major mass extinctions over past 500 million years The quickest of them all! News from the Field The primary reason - humans Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation Introduction of nonnative species Population growth, overconsumption, pollution and global climatic change Overexploitation, hunting and narrowing of gene pool All pose a significant threat to Earth?s biodiversity Many species are expected to become extinct in next 50-100 years What is Biodiversity? Biological diversity/biodiversity The variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological communities they inhabit. Loss of biodiversity? Extinction of species or loss of unique habitats and ecosystems or reduction of genetic variation within a species What are the Levels of Biodiversity Ecosystem diversity Variations in the types of environments that serve as a home to living organisms (e.g., grasslands, forests, wetlands, deserts. tundra etc,) Species diversity Variety of species within a given ecosystem, region, or in general, upon the planet. (e.g., all plants, animals, insects, inhabiting a grassland). Genetic diversity Variation of genes within a given species Fig. 5-9, p. 106 Major Biomes/Ecosystems Ecosystem Diversity Projected Status of Biodiversity 1998?2018 Critical and endangered Threatened Stable or intact ANTARCTICA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA Pacific Ocean Antarctic Circle Pacific Ocean Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean 150° 90° 60°E 0° 30°W 90° 120° 150° 0° 60° 30°N 30°S 60° Arctic Circle Arctic Circle Figure 11-4 Page 196 Fig. 10-3, p. 193 Fish Figure 11-5 Page 225 Mammals Reptiles Plants Birds 34% (51% of freshwater species) 24% 20% 14% 12% Threatened by premature extinction due to human activities See Figure 11-3c Page 224 Florida manatee Northern spotted owl (threatened) Gray wolf Florida panther Bannerman's turaco (Africa) Devil's hole pupfish Snow leopard (Central Asia) Black-footed ferret Symphonia (Madagascar) Utah prairie dog (threatened) Ghost bat (Australia) California condor Black lace cactus Black rhinoceros (Africa) Oahu tree snail Figure 11-3 Page 224 West Virginia spring salamander Giant panda (China) Knowlton cactus Mountain gorilla (Africa) Swamp pink Pine barrens tree frog (male) Hawksbill sea turtle El Segundo blue butterfly Whooping crane Blue whale Fig. 11-18, p. 241 Biodiversity Hot Spots in the USA Fig. 11-11a, p. 234 Fig. 10-5, p. 195 Old Growth Forest, Olympic National Forest, Wash St. Fig. 10-8, p. 197 Roads pave the way for fragmentation, destruction, degradation and loss of biodiversity Loss of Biodiversity Fig. 10-16a, p. 204 Rondonia Brazil 1975 Rondonia Brazil 2001 Fig. 10-13b, p. 201 Fig. 11-8, p. 230 Major Consequences of Loss of Biodiversity Extinction Permanent loss of a species of any living organism, plant or animal Threatened/High Vulnerability Likely to become extinct in near future If millions of acres of land are planted with a single variety of crop may be at risk from a predator (pest) or a disease (e.g., potato blight in Ireland) Large pools of genes are needed to maintain the health and preservation of a species Loss of Biodiversity Major Consequences Economic losses Each species is of potential value to humans, as are healthy ecosystems. Humans depend on other species for their survival, food, and many other products. Global GNP (US $18 trillion) Ecosystem Services (US $33 trillion) How Much Are Nature?s Services Worth? Consequences Loss of medicinal properties for humans, animals, and other organisms In USA-1/4 of all prescriptions are derived from plants 3/4 of the world's people depend on traditional medicines derived from plants Foxglove Digitalis purpurea, Europe Digitalis for heart failure Fig 10-18 p.205 Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia, Pacific Northwest Ovarian cancer Fig 10-18 Page 205 Fig. 10-18e, p. 205 Rosy periwinkle Cathranthus roseus, Madagascar Hodgkin's disease, lymphocytic leukemia Consequences Ecological Consequences Non-human species maintain and preserve biogeochemical cycles--earth's support systems. Provide essential connecting points in the food web. If species losses become critical or extinct-it disrupts other species--making them more vulnerable to losses. e.g., birds, fish and whales are dependent on krill populations in Antarctic If one species is diminished-other may increase dramatically-upset predator-prey cycle e.g., wolves and deer and antelope populations Consequences Cultural and social consequences The Lummi Indians of the Pacific Northwest and salmon Many peoples are dependent on certain species for their way of life and for their religious rituals Moral and ethical implications Plants and other animals have the right to exist. Each species is worthy of respect regardless of its worth to humans. The Species Approach The Ecosystem Approach Goal Protect species from premature extinction Strategies Identify endangered species Protect their critical habitats Tactics Legally protect endangered species Manage habitat Propagate endangered species in captivity Reintroduce species into suitable habitats Goal Protect populations of species in their natural habitats Strategy Preserve sufficient areas of habitats in different biomes and aquatic systems Tactics Protect habitat areas through private purchase or government action Eliminate or reduce populations of alien species from protected areas Manage protected areas to sustain native species Restore degraded ecosystems Figure 3-5 Page 63 Solutions Fig. 11-15, p. 237 Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of DDT
Want to see the other 37 page(s) in Biodiversity?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!