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What is Anthropology?
A branch of anthropology that studies the physical development of humans
A branch of anthropology that studies the differences and similarities between human beings whose lives can be, or have been, directly observed and documented
A branch of anthropology that studies the history of our language
What is Paleoanthropology?
What is Science?
What is the criterion of falsifiability?
Why are scientific “facts” provisional?
discrete bits of information based on consistently replicated observations. They are open to rejection. Ex: humans have 23 chromosomes
What is a hypothesis in the scientific sense?
A proposed explanation
How do we test hypotheses?
New observations, experiments, and models.
How does one reject a hypothesis?
What are scientific laws?
Well-established descriptions and explanations of nature.
What are scientific theories?
Validated by experimental evidence.
How does the use of the word theory differ from its contextual use in Science and in everyday speech?
Scientific theories are testable explanations based on much experimental data, not speculative guesses.
4th century BC
-Developed Evolution theory
-Great chain of being scale naturae progressive order from lower to higher organisms
-Taught that the sun and planets existed in a series of concentric spheres that revolved around the earth
-Formulated astronomical model based on earth centered universe
-Fixity of species design is evident
-Mathematician and astronomer
-Heliocentric universe replaced Ptolemaic view
-Major paradigm shift in naturalist vs. theist basis
-Restated Copernicus' views in print using logic and math to support his claim of empirical approach
How did Essentialists view variation?
The belief that people and/or phenomena have an underlying and unchanging essence, assumes that certain characteristic, behaviors, and traits are natural and inherent.
Why are species “fixed” according to an essentialist?
2. All species are separated by sharp boundaries.
3. Species are constant and unchanging in space and time.
-Homo Sapiens grouped humans with animals
-Fixity of species
-4 level system became the basis for taxonomy
Father of Taxonomy, not evolutionary, systema naturae, binomial format for naming.
hierarchical classification (i.e., the system created by Linnaeus)
a method of scientific taxonomy used to group and categorize into groups. Divine plan of creation, not evolution.
What is Teleology?
Blue print creator of the universe, purpose for each species, God-Create-Craftsman, extinction is impossible, the study of the ultimate purpose (Aristotle).
The watchmaker metaphor
Natural Theory: Argues for the existence of God on the basis of an analogy to a watch. "Watch-maker"
Fixity of species
The notion that species once created can never change. Directly opposed to biological evolution.
Each species were created individually by God
Young Earth vs. Ancient Earth
-Primate of all Ireland
-Earth = 6000 years old
Universe was created 4004 BC, inconsistent with Darwin's theory, young Earth.
-Geology uniforitarianism, wind/water erosion, glacial movement, deposition
Father of modern geology, proposed the principle of uniformitarianism.
the theory that earth is always changing place
Principles of Geology
Book by Charles Lyell, established Lyell's credentials as an important geological theorist and popularized the doctrine of uniformitarianism.
Early thinkers about evolutionary change and the origination of life
Thomas Malthus: "Struggle for existence"
Charles Darwin: Natural Selection
-Philosopher and zooologist
-Coined the term "Biology"
-Dynamic relationship between species and environment (giraffe example)
developed the first evolutionary idea, believed that species change was influenced by environmental change, vital essences of our bodies could pick what to pass on to offspring.
Anatomist and Paleontologist
-Proponent of fixity
-Catastrophism, view that earth's geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events
-Divided animal kingdom using anatomyDeveloped paleontology, embraces extinction, Catastrophism, fossils
The view that most of earth's geological features are the result of large-scale catastrophes and violent cataclysmic events. Cuvier promoted this view especially in opposition to Lamarck.
-Grandfather of Charles Darwin
-Life originated in the seas and that all species had descended from a common ancestor
Alfred Russel Wallace, geographic zone in southeast Asia where different species are found on opposite sides of the line.
Landmass connecting the Indonesian Islands to Southeast Asia
Originator of evolution theory
-Natural Selection is key, emphasis on variation as driving mechanism
-Galapagos Islands (Finches)
-Origin of Species
1. Darwin's ship that he used on his voyages as a naturalist.
2. Started collecting data for his theory of evolution at age 27 but didn't report his ideas until much later when he had more data.
On the Origin of Species
Multiplication of species
Species can give rise to daughter species
All extant species can trace their ancestry to a single origin
natura facit saltum (nature does not make jumps)
Differential survival & reproductive success. "Nonrandom survival of hereditary info through many generations"
Variation in a population can be passed on. Individuals with favoured traits will reproduce and survive
Competition for limited resources
"Survival of the fittest" Living things best able to utilise the resources provided by their environment produce greatest number of offspring.
An Essay on the Principle of Population
Populations increase faster than resources
all species are capable of over producing
Soft Inheritance: Inheritance of acquired characteristics Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
the idea that hereditary is a matter that is affected by the environment. "vital essences" sense need through use and change, these changes are passed on to offspring
Hard Inheritance (aka particulate inheritance) Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendels idea that characteristics of an organism`s offspring are passed on through DNA and will not be affected by the actions that the parental organism does during its life.
the idea that each body part has a different particle (pangene or gemmule). the pangenes produce by the organs travel to the reproductive organs and are then the male and female particles blend together.
the theory that sperm contained a "little human". this belief was that women passed no traits and that genetics was uni-parental. disproved when Antony Von Leewenhoek discovered spern using his microscope in 1677
pangenesis belief- a form of inheritance in which the features of offspring are the average of those seen in the parents rather than having dominant and recessive alleles
the visible traits that alleles produce (eye color, hair color, height)
the alleles that are present in an organism (AA, Aa, aa)
sequences of DNA that code for amino acids in a protein that codes for a specific trait of an organism.
alternate forms of a gene
How many copies of each gene are present in a diploid cell? Why?
when 2 copies of the same allele are present (AA, aa)
when 2 different alleles are present (Aa)
alleles that, when present, are always expressed
alleles that are only expressed in homozygous situations
alleles that are both expressed in heterozygotes. (ex: blood type AB)
When the chromosomes go through split so that each gamete contains one member of each pair
Expected outcomes of hyrbridization
has no nucleus
- their DNA makes a single circle loop
-bacteria are most likely to be prokaryotes
are also known as fossils , layered
How do eurkaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells?
- p has no nucleus
-E has a nucleus
-P has circular DNA
-E has more of double helix DNA
Are all eukaryotic organisms multicellular?
Are you a eukaryote?
show up in Mitosis in the prophase when it is duplicated and then split apart in anaphase which turn into daughter cells in telophase after
the other chromosome pairs that don't carry the sex cell pairs
carry the sex genes in humans the XX, or XY in a normal human.
the chart of the human chromosomes that are soon divided by mitosis or meiosis
one from each pair, - half of mom's and half of dads DNA strand
a pair of chromosomes doesn't need to split off like the sex cells for the first step of mitosis
because they are creating new cells that are going to help the process.
3 letters long (ATC,GTA)
-decodes the DNA sequence into "words" that form sentences or instructions for the cell to go.
DNA strand is unzipped
-then matched up with another new line of bases
-then put in 3 letters long sequence (codon's)
-then translated into words that form the DNA sentence.
single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA; three forms are essential to protein synthesis: messenger, transfer, and ribosomal
Differences from DNA in structure, nucleotides, and location in the cell Base pairing rules when paired with DNA
purines always bond with pyrimidines
Structure: Primary Sequence of Amino Acids; 3-d shape
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
Not sex cells
Sex cells: sperm or eggs (ova)
Steps: DNA replication, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase Products of Mitosis
Steps: DNA replication, 2 rounds of cell division (Prophase I, Metaphase I,
Anaphase I, Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II)
Change in base sequence of a gene that results from the change of a single base to a different base
Change in base sequence of a gene that results from addition of one or more base pairs in DNA
Change in base sequence of a gene that results from loss of one or more base pairs in DNA
Frame shift mutation
mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Transcription: role of mRNA, where it takes place in the cell
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Translation: role of tRNA, where it takes place in the cell, which organelles are involved
a shift in the frequency of traits that favors the extreme trait
a shift in the frequency of traits that selects against extreme traits
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce in its environment
1.Partial geographic isolation, with selection against hybrids
2. reproduction isolation is required, so that the ranges of populations may be partially overlapping
3. a hybrid zone would form in an area between the two partially separated populations and more complete separation could then occur through enforcement of mate recognition and selective breeding
example: the fertile hybrids between savanna and hamadryas baboons
1. Living in different areas; this pattern is important in the divergence of closely related species from each other and from their shared ancestral species because it leads to reproductive isolation
*this model requires complete reproductive isolation within a population, leading to the formation of an incipient species separated geographically form its ancestral population
2. difficult to observe, but it can be inferred from certain phenomena like ring species
3. Requires a physical barrier to gene flow
Members of isolated populations diverge genetically from original population due to different selection pressures
1. mode speciation through branching patterns
2. two or more daughter species evolved from one parent species (allopatric speciation)
2. Entire species undergoes speciation in response to steady, directional environmental change
What is lactose?
A sugar that is the primary constituent of fresh milk.
What is lactase?
enzyme in the small intestine that enables humans to assimilate lactose.
What’s the geographical pattern of lactase persistence?
Milk through cattle domestication ~ 11,000 years ago in the Middle East
- Somewhere around Hungary
- Lactase persistence (~7,500 yrs ago) in Europe
- Independently evolved in several places (separate mutation
Why is the sickle-cell hemoglobin more common in certain areas of the world?
A biological abnormality of the red blood cells, referred to as sickle-cell anemia, is also an adaptive response to what disease found primarily in Central and West Africa
What is “Heterozygote Advantage”?
Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared to homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in gene pools.
The rule that protruding body parts (particularly arms and legs) are relatively shorter in the cooler areas of species range than in the warmer areas.
What is Bergmann’s Rule?
The rule that smaller sized subpopulations of a species inhabit the warmer parts of its geographic range and large sized subpopulation the cooler sides.
How would you describe the body shape of tropical adapted populations?
Ellis-van Creveld syndrome
a syndrome that has been traced back to one couple, Samuel King and his wife, who had the disease and it was heavily passed to his offspring since there wasn't any genetic drift
What is a cline?
a change of an individual's phenotype in response to changing environmental conditions
the outcome of natural selection, the population's gene pool evolves to meet the demands of the environment
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