carbon and hydrogen and may also contain nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
Because carbon atom has 4 electrons in its outermost orbital it can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 different atoms.
Attach to a carbon chain and impart special chemical properties to a molecule.
Are long chains of covalently bonded monomers
*****Are the most abundant carbon compounds in living organisms*****
Are simple sugar that contain 3-7 carbon atoms
Main source of energy for most cells
Present in fruits and veggies. Very sweet
Ribose and Deoxyribose
Are 5 carbon sugars in nucleic acids
Form when 2 monosaccharides are joined together by dehydration synthesis
Formed from glucose and fructose and is used to transport sugar plants
Formed from glucose and galactose and is called "milk sugar"
Formed from glucose and is by product of starch digestion
Are long chains of glucose molecules that are relatively insoluble in water making them useful as storage compounds or as structural compounds.
Branched polymer of glucose molecules used for E storage in plants
Long unbranched polymer of glucose used for structural strength in plants but not digestible by humans
Story more energy per gram than carbohydrates. Are hydrophobic, non-polar (won't mix in water)
Are composed of 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol and are most familiar lipid
Has long non-polar hydrocarbon chain with polar group at 1 end
Saturated Fatty Acids
Have 1 carbon-carbon single bonds and 2 hydrogen atoms are attached to each atom of carbon.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Have 1 or more carbon-carbon double bonds and number of hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon is reduces.
Tend to be solid at room temperature and usually come from animal products and contain saturated fatty acids
Tend to be liquid at room temperature and usually come from plant products and contain unsaturated fatty acids
-Unsaturated Oils tend to be healthier than saturated fats and easier to digest
Resemble triglycerides but a polar phosphate group replaces 1 of they fatty acids
*Important component of biological membranes
Complex lipids whose structure is based on 4 rings of carbon atoms
An important component in membranes and is used to synthesize sex hormones and other steroids. Cholesterol comes from animal products and is important in membranes and is need to synthesize sex hormones and other steroids.
Contain a long fatty acid chain connected to an alcohol molecule. Highly waterproof compounds provide protection against desiccation.
Are the most diverse carbon compounds in living organisms. Proteins are polymers of amino acids. At least 20 amino acids are used to build proteins and all have same basic structure. Function of protein is influenced by its overall shape.
Make up hair, nails, and muscle fibers. Ex: Keratin; collagen
Carry substances throughout the body. Ex: Hemoglobin (blood)
Serve as a chemical messenger Ex: Insulin
Protect organism against disease causing agents.
Catalyze chemical reactions necessary to sustain life.
Are linked together by covalent peptide bonds to form polypeptides or dipeptides or a tripeptide.
Represents the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide determined genetically
Determined by the way a polypeptide coils or folds because of hydrogen bonds.
Refers to the 3-dimensional shape of a polypeptide
Results when 2 or more polypeptides are joined together.
Denaturation of a protein
Proteins have the ability to modify structure of function properly. Any change in temperature or in pH can cause denaturation (significant change in structure that renders protein incapable of performing its usual function.
are used by cells for a variety of functions. They are polymers and nucleotides.
Consists of 5-carbon sugar, 1 or more phosphate groups, and a ring shaped nitrogenous base.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Consists of 2 long chains of deoxynucleotides arranged in double helix that store genetic information.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Consists of a single chain of ribonucleotides that transfer genetic information to ribosomes.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Contains 3 phosphate groups and stores and supplies energy for biochemical reactions.
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