The framework or backbone of organic molecules consists predominately of:
What are the three major structural components of an amino acid?
Carboxyl group, R group, Amino group
Form the core of all biological membranes.Consist of glycerol joined to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group. Spontaneously form micelles or bilayers in water. Have a polar "head" and 2 long, nonpolar "tails".
The information needed to assemble _____ from amino acids is stored and transmitted through generations of organisms in molecules of DNA.
Which of the following describe monosaccharides?
Monosaccharides are monomers that can be joined together to form more complex carbohydrates. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are the simplest sugars.
Match each group of lipids with its primary function in living organisms.
Terpenes: some are components of important biological pigmentsPhospholipids: The main component of cell membranes. Steroids: Some function as hormones in animals. Fats: Long-term energy storage.
Which of the following is a characteristic that ALL lipids share?
They are largely insoluble in water
Transport forms of sugars are commonly made by linking 2 monosaccharides together to form a ____
What type of bond forms between two amino acids during dehydration synthesis?
The structure of ___ is usually discussed in terms of a hierarchy of 4 levels
_____ is often referred to as the "energy currency of the cell"
Which of the following statements about the relationship between enzymes and environmental conditions are TRUE?
The optimum conditions for enzyme activity are usually similar to the conditions where the enzyme normally functions.Changing environmental conditions may alter the structure of enzymes. Changing environmental conditions may alter the activity of enzymes.
All living things are composed of ____: very large molecules that contain thousands, and in some cases, even billions of atoms.
ATP is used to:
Power transport across cell membranes.Power the movement of cells. Drive the energetically unfavorable reactions.
Which of the following is a level of protein structure?
Unique among macromolecules, _____ ____ are able to serve as templates to produce precise copies of themselves.
Changes in a protein's environment can cause the protein to unfold and lose its shape in a process called:
Which of the following are functions of proteins?
They play a key role in moving materials within cells.They catalyze chemicals reactions. They help the body recognize and destroy foreign microbes and cancer cells. They transport oxygen in the blood of vertebrates They provide structural support for many animal tissues. They transport ions and molecules across cell membranes. They play a key role in the contraction of muscles.
When a carbohydrate is formed by linking two monosaccharides by a condensation reaction, we get water plus a:
The 4 main groups of biological macromolecules are:
ProteinsLipids Nucleic acid Carbohydrates
Nucleic acids are long polymers of repeating subunits called _____
The structure of proteins is usually discussed in terms of heirarchy of how many levels?
The 4 levels of protein structure are ___ structure, ___ structure, ___ structure, and ___ structure.
Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
Which of the following best describes the relationship between temperature and enzyme activity?
Each enzyme has an optimum temperature where it functions best.
Proteins are made up of one or more in branched chains of ___ ____
Which of the following statements about protein's are TRUE
The ability of a protein to function depends on its 3-dimensional shape.Denatured protein's are usually biologically inactive. The shape of a protein is affected by environmental conditions such as temperature, pH, and ionic concentration. Changes in environmental conditions can alter the shape of a protein or cause it to unfold completely. Each protein has a set of optimum conditions under which it works best. The optimum environmental conditions for a protein are usually similar to the conditions where it normally functions.
Most fats and oils:
Are used for long-term energy storage.
Polysaccharides are long polymers made of monomers called ___ that have been linked through dehydration synthesis.
Which of the following accurately describes the chemical structure of an amino acid?
A central carbon atom is bound to an amino group, Carboxyl group, and a hydrogen atom.
In cells, DNA serves as a template for the synthesis of ___ which directs the synthesis of ____
____ _____ are long polymers of repeating subunits called nucleotides.
What are the building blocks of proteins?
Amino acids form chains that make up proteins.
Which of the following molecules have the ability to serve as template to produce precise copies of themselves?
Which of the following are lipids?
In cells,____ directs the synthesis of mRNA which directs the synthesis of ___
Match the level of protein structure with the correct description.
Primary: sequence of amino acidsTertiary: three-dimensional folding of a single polypeptide. Secondary: alpha helices and beta sheets Quaternary: interactions between 2 or more polypeptides to form a protein.
If the 4 subunits that make up a hemoglobin molecule separate into 4 individual molecules without losing their individual tertiary structure, the process is called ____
How are DNA and RNA molecules similar?
Bothe are composed of nucleotides.Both use phosphodiester bonds to link the nucleotides in a single strand together. Both have nitrogenous bases.
Which sugar is found in the backbone of DNA molecules?
The 2 types of nitrogenous bases present in nucleotides are ___ and ___
FAD and NAD+ function as ___ carriers in a variety of cellular processes.
Which of the following are lipids?
Proteins are polymers made up of ___ different amino acids
The ____ of a protein determines its function.
ATP, FAD, and NAD+ all contain the nucleotide ____ in their structure.
True or false: Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides.
A polypeptide is a long, unbranched chain of ___ ___
A protein's secondary structure is maintained by hydrogen bonds between:
The amino and Carboxyl groups within the polypeptide backbone.
Hydrophilic.Polar of charged.
Which of the following bonds are best described as polar?
A small section of a polysaccharide
Altering the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain by just a single amino acid can have drastic effects on a protein's:
The five-carbon sugars ____ and ___ are components of Nucleic acids
What are the two major classes of Nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What are individual polypeptide chains within proteins called?
Are mirror images of each other.Have the same molecular formula.
A protein's secondary structure is maintained primarily by ____ ____
The R group
Carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bonds are:
Polar covalent.Formed by an unequal sharing of electrons.
Individual polypeptides within a protein are referred to as ___
Motifs and domains are structural charachteristics of ____
What types of bonds keep the 2 strands of DNA joined to each other?
In carbohydrates what type of bond connects 2 monosaccharides?
Information is stored in DNA by varying the sequence of the four types of ____ that make up each strand.
Cells contain chaperone proteins which help other proteins ____ correctly
____ is observed when individual subunits making up a protein with quaternary structure separate without losing their tertiary structures.
The sequence of amino acids in a protein is specified by:
The sequence of nucleotides in a segment of DNA
A small section of a polysaccharide
The simplest carbohydrates are:
A particular sequence or combination of secondary elements that appears in a variety of different proteins and is often associated with a specific function is called a(n):
Protein ____ structure refers to the regular and repeated patterns of coiling or folding within a single polypeptide chains that are caused by hydrogen bonding between polar groups in the polypeptide back
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