Which answer correctly associates a process in cellular respiration with (1) what goes in and (2) what comes out?
Citric acid cycle: (1) Acetyl CoA; (2) NADH, ATP (or GTP), FADH2,, and CO2
What is the correct sequence of steps in cellular respiration, starting with glucose?
glycolysis, pyruvate processing, citric acid cycle, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation
During cellular respiration ____.
glucose is oxidized and there is net production of ATP.
In the phosphofructokinase molecule, the active site has a higher affinity for ATP than the regulatory site does. Which answer best summarizes what the consequences would be if the regulatory site had a higher affinity for ATP than the active site did?
Glucose oxidation would be inhibited even if ATP were scarce in the cell.
Glycolysis is a series of ___ reactions that occurs in the _____ of cells.
For each molecule of glucose processed during glycolysis, the net yield is ____.
two molecules of NADH, two of ATP, and two of pyruvate
During pyruvate processing, two carbons from pyruvate combine with ____.
acetyl-CoA or coenzyme A
What molecule is produced in the citric acid cycle as a by-product of glucose oxidation and is considered a waste product?
What molecule produced during the citric acid cycle feeds into the electron transport chain?
Why is ATP production during cellular respiration characterized as indirect?
ATP is not produced directly by the ETC but instead via the proton gradient generated during electron transport through the ETC.
In eukaryotes, the components of the electron transport chain are located in the ____.
inner mitochondrial membrane
At the end of cellular respiration, protons flow through a protein called _____, which drives the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
Which answer best explains why organisms that have an ETC as well as fermentation pathways seldom ferment pyruvate if the electron acceptor at the end of the ETC is available?
Fermentation is extremely inefficient in terms of the number of ATP molecules produced for each molecule of glucose metabolized.
What purpose does fermentation serve?
It regenerates NAD+ from NADH to keep glycolysis going in the absence of oxygen
What would happen to NADH levels in a cell in the first few seconds after a drug has poisoned the enzyme that combines acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate to form citrate?
NADH levels would decrease.
What is a significant advantage to the cell in having pyruvate dehydrogenase consist of a large, multi-enzyme complex?
Metabolism can occur more rapidly.
What would be the most likely effect on the pH of the mitochondrial matrix of a drug that inhibits ATP synthase?
It would rise.
What is the function of the reactions in the citric acid cycle?
to generate NADH from NAD+, so electrons can be donated to the electron transport chain
After glucose is fully oxidized by glycolysis, pyruvate processing, and the citric acid cycle, where is most of the energy stored?
in the form of NADH
Where does the citric acid cycle occur in prokaryotes?
in the cytosol
Suppose a drug were added to mitochondria that allowed protons to freely pass through the inner membrane.Which of the following mitochondrial activities would most likely be inhibited?
If you were to expose cells that are undergoing cellular respiration to a radioactive oxygen isotope in the form of O2, which of the following molecules would you expect to be radiolabeled?
Why does aerobic respiration produce much more ATP than anaerobic respiration?
Oxygen has extremely high electronegativity compared with other electron acceptors, resulting in a greater release of energy during electron transport and more proton pumping.
What do they have in common? Compare and contrast substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation.
Both processes produce ATP from ADP and Pi.
Which of the following would cause cells to switch from cellular respiration to fermentation?
The final electron acceptor in the ETC is not available.
What does the chemiosmotic hypothesis claim?
Electron transport chains generate ATP indirectly, by the creation of a proton-motive force.
Want to see the other 26 Flashcards in Biology 110 - Chapter 9 HW?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!