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Which of the following animals would you expect to have the longest loops of Henle?
· Loops of Henle go into the medulla, the longer the loops the more water you can hold
If a molecule of CO2 is released into the blood in your left toe and exhaled from your nose, the molecule must have traveled through all of the following structures…
Trachea, right atrium, right ventricle, alveolus
After the surgical removal of an infected gall bladder, a person should be careful to restrict his/her dietary intake of
Highly polarized cells packed together to form a boundary
· Epithelial tissue: skin, hair, nails
The transfer of fluid from the glomerulus to Bowman’s capsuleIs mainly driven by blood pressure in the capillaries of the glomerulus
Is mainly driven by blood pressure in the capillaries of the glomerulus
Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in birds and mammals?
vena cava->right atrium->right ventricle->pulmonary artery
Which of the following components of the respiratory membrane is responsible for proper inflation of the alveolus?
The surfactant layer
The bile salts
Emulsify fats in the duodenum
Fluids collected in the renal pelvis exit into the
· Glomerulus->Bowman’s capsule->proximal tubule->loop of henle
->collecting duct->renal pelvis->ureters
One important reason why the kidneys are obligate aerobic organs is that
The body’s automatic tendency to maintain a constant and optimal internal environment is termed
Fat digestion yields fatty acids and glycerol, whereas protein digestion yields amino acids; both digestive processes
Uses water molecules when breaking bonds
· Hydrolysis- adding water to help break it down
Not always confined to blood vessels and is under lower pressure than in closed circulatory systems
· In an open circulatory system the circuit of blood flow includes some areas where there are no definite blood vessels surrounding the blood
Breathing (ventilation) is accomplished by rhythmic contraction and relaxation of
The Bohr shift in the oxygen-hemaglobin affinity curve is produced by changes in
pH of plasma
· Breathing is most strongly regulated by CO2 concentration and pH in the plasma as well
When stimulated by vasopressin, the reabsorption of H2O from filtrate is increased in
Food moves along the digestive tract as the result of contractions by
· Smooth muscles tissue is associated with internal organs, other than the heart
When air in a sealed chamber is specially mixed so that its oxygen content is 15% and the overall pressure is 580 mg Hg, the the pPO2 is
87 mm Hg
· 580(.15)=87, assume pressure is 760 and air is 21% oxygen if not given, nitrogen is 78%
Filtering activity of the lymphatic system
· Also can be described as increased activity of the immune system
Which of the following reactions typically prevails in red blood cells traveling through pulmonary capillaries?
Hb(O2)3 + O2-> Hb(O2)4
· For systemic capillaries(tissue) its H2CO3->H+ + HCO3-
When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first stimulates the urge to breath?
· Breathing is most strongly regulated by CO2 concentration and pH in the plasma; true about the control of breathing, activation of the respiratory center causes increased rate and depth of breathing, normal rhythm of breathing is regulated by the alternation of inspiratory and expiratory centers of the medulla, stretch receptors in the lungs send impluses to the brain that activate the expiratory center; Blood carbon dioxide levels determine the pH of other body fluids as well as blood, including the pH of cerebrospinal fluid, which enables the organism to control breathing because the medulla, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing.
A normal event in the process of blood clotting is the
Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
· Other normal events are conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, adhesion of platelets to damaged cellular surfaces, and thromboplastin activation by damaged platelets; Meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of the protein fibrin
Cardiac muscle cell contractions are both
Intrinsic and rhythmic
A human afflicted with Tetralogy of Fallot would have a heart structure that is similar to the heart of a
· Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that will produce a “blue baby” (cyanosis)
Ingested dietary substances must cross cell membranes to be used by the body. This process is know as
After drinking alcoholic beverages, increased urine excretion is the result of
A human red blood cell in an artery on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in a villus in the small intestine. To travel from the artery to the small intestine and then back to the left ventricle, this red blood cell must pass through
To become bound to hemoglobin for transport in a mammal, atmospheric molecules of oxygen must cross
Five membranes, in and out of the alveolar cell, and then in and out of the endothelial cell of an alveolar capillary and into the red blood cell to bind with hemoglobin
The large surface area of the epithelium of the small intestine directly facilitates
The diameter of a human erythrocyte is
The lymphatic filtering system often fails to adequately protect the rest of the body from the spread of
Most types of cancer cells from the original tumor
If ATP production in a human kidney was suddenly halted, the volume of urine production would
Increase, and the urine would be isotonic to blood plasma
The substance or structure present in arterioles that is not present in capillaries is
Which structure in the human body carries out its own gas exchange with the atmosphere without a need for a blood supply?
· All of the following gas exchange surfaces are associated with capillary networks- gills of fishes, alveoli of mammalian lungs, skin of frogs, and crayfish gills. The cornea of the eye has a clear membrane
Ventricular septum, causing ventricular contraction
· The SA node generates an electrical impulse from its location in the right atrium, causing atrial contraction
A healthy human replaces about what proportion of circulating erythrocytes every day?
Which form of nitrogenous waste has the greatest number of nitrogen atoms?
· This is also the primary nitrogenous waste excreted by birds.
Among these choices below, the set that identifies cells primarily involved with body defenses is
Monocytes and neutrophils
· Neutrophils engulf bacteria and monocytes/macrophases scavenge dead cells
The function of mechanical processing in advanced animals is to break down large chunks of food into smaller pieces. Why is this important? Smaller pieces of food
Have more surface area for enzymatic hydrolysis than do larger pieces of food
Damage to the nephrons of the human kidney could result in a urinary filtrate containing an abnormally high concentration of
ProteinsExcretion of urea is a function of the kidneys, which has protein
The mammalian trachea and esophagus both connect to the
· Both food and air pass through the pharynx
A patent ductus arteriousus is corrected by
Surgical closing of the persistent connection
· Changes which occur at birth in the circulatory system of a placental mammal are pulmonary arteries begin to carry large volumes of blood, the foramen ovale closes and the ductus arteriosus closes and degenerates. Before birth blood passing through the foramen ovale is moving from the right atrium to the left atrium
On switching from the fetal to neonatal circulatory pathways, blood which passed through the ductus arteriosus in the fetus is rerouted into the _____ of the neonatal baby.
In the human being, blood leaving the liver in the hepatic vein ordinarily has a high concentration of _____ than other blood.
Blood is best classified as a connective tissue because
Its cells occupy less volume than the volume of plasma
· Connective tissue is the kind of tissue that consists mostly of extracellular material and a small proportion of cells
· Epithelial tissue is skin, hair and nails.
An increase in blood plasma pH from 7.2 to 7.4 would cause
An increase in the affinity of hemoglobin to bind oxygen molecules
· A decrease would cause a decrease
Which of the following is a benefit of multicellularity, when compared to organisms consisting of just one cell?
Cells can specialize and divide specialized functions among the the multicellular mass
The type of muscle tissue associated with internal organs, other than the heart, is
The kind of tissue that consists mostly of extracellular material and a small proportion of cells is
The epiglottis of a human covers the glottis when he or she is
· Prevents food or drink form eating that area
After ingestion, the first type of macromolecule to be worked on by enzymes in the human digestive system is
· Its carbohydrates, with salivary amylase, then protein
To increase the effectiveness of exchange surfaces in the lungs and in the intestines, evolutionary pressures have
Increased the surface area available for exchange
The absorptive epithelia cells in the small intestine are considered “polarized” because
The structures on their apical surfaces are different than those on their basal surfaces
The boundary between the stomach and the duodenum is defined by what structure?
Shortly after eating a large plate of carbohydrate-rich noodles, you measure hormone levels in your blood. Compared to the levels before the meal, what results would you expect to see, assuming that your physiology is normal?
High insulin, low glucagon
· They’ll always be opposite
Without functioning parietal cells, which of the following would you expect for an individual?
Not to be able to initiate protein digestion in the stomach
· Parietal cells are epithelia cells that secrete HCl, which makes pepsin
Which digestive organ releases substances (hormones) that control the activities of several other digestive organs in its vicinity?
· The duodenum secrete the hormones secretin, esterogastrone, and cholecystokinin
After surgical removal of an infected gall bladder, a person might be careful to restrict dietary intake of
· Bile breaks down lipids in the gall bladder
During the process of digestion, fats are broken down when fatty acids are detached from glycerol. In addition, proteins are digested to yield amino acids. What do these two processes have in common?
They involve the addition of a water molecule to break bonds
· Hydrolysis- adding water to help break it down
No valves throughout the circuit
· Only closed circulatory system has veins, and veins have valves.
The SA node generates an electrical impulse from its location in the
A circulatory system in which the circuit of blood flow includes some areas where there are no definite blood vessels surrounding the blood is called
An open circulatory system
Which of the following would be least likely to be present in the filtrate collected in the human Bowman’s capsule?
· The threshold is 7 nm, where hemoglobin (red blood cells) are 8 micrometers
In placental mammal fetal circulation before birth, blood passing through the foramen ovale is moving from the _____ to the _____.
Right atrium; left atrium
· This is before the foramen ovale closes at birth
What is the reason that liquid is forced out of systemic circulation into the interstitial fluid?
The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than that of the interstitial fluid
The lymphatic fluid
Is filtered from the blood by hydrostatic pressure
What would be the long term effect if the lymphatic vessel associated with a capillary bed were to become blocked?
Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and armpit region are associated with
Increased activity of the immune system
A consequence of blocked lymphatic vessels
Platelets and erythrocytes
· Basophils and monocytes have them
Which of the following is a function of lymphocytes?
Which of the following is a function of thrombocytes?
Initiating a clotting response
Which of the following is a function of monocytes/macrophases?
Which of the following is a function of erythrocytes?
Carrying oxygen in circulation
Which of the following is a normal event when an injury activates the process of blood clotting?
Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
Which of the following is not a normal event in the process of blood clotting?
Production of erythrocytes
· Normal events are conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, adhesion of platelets to damaged cellular surfaces, thromboplastin, activation by damaged platelets
Meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of which protein?
Three of four of the following statements correctly describe changes which occur at birth in the circulatory system of a placental mammal. Which, if any, does not correctly state such a change?
The veins leading to the heart began to degenerate
· Changes that occur at birth are pulmonary arteries begin to carry large volumes of blood, the foramen ovale closes, and the ductus arteriosus closes and degenerates
All of the following gas exchange surfaces are associated with capillary networks except the
Cornea of the eye
· The cornea has a clear membrane. Gills of fish, alveoli of mammalian lunges, skin of frogs, and crayfish gills are associated with capillary networks.
Sponges, cnidarians, and flatworms lack a specialized gas exchange surface because
Nearly all of their cells are in direct contact with the external environment
How does a butterfly (insect) get oxygen to its tissues and get rid of carbon dioxide produced by cellular respiration?
· Insects have a tracheal system, humans have true lungs and spiders, ticks, scorpions, etc. have book lungs
In negative pressure breathing, inhalation results from
The exhalation of air from the lungs is drive by
When a surgeon cuts through the rib cage of a patient to operate on the heart or lungs, even though the diaphragm may still be able to move. Why is respiration assistance necessary?
With the chest cavity open, a partial vacuum is no longer produced when the diaphragm contracts
Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure. This most probably relates to which of the following?
Inadequate production of surfactant
Which of the following features do all gas exchange systems have in common?
The exchange surfaces are moist.
The major mechanism by which exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products occurs between capillaries and the surrounding cells is
Bicarbonate ions in the plasma
Which of the following is NOT true about the control of breathing in humans?
Decreased O2 in the blood is detected by the respiratory center as a decrease in H+ concentration
· Activation of the respiratory center causes increased rate and depth of breathing, normal rhythm of breathing is regulated by the alternation of inspiratory and expiratory centers of the medulla, stretch receptors in the lungs send impulses to the brain that activate the expiratory center and chemoreceptors in the aorta and carotids detect reduced O2 and send impulses to the respiratory center
A mature mammalian red blood cell
Cyanide poisons mitochondria by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. Human red blood cells placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide are likely to
Where do air-breathing insects carry out gas exchanges?
Across the membranes of cells
· Insects have an open circulatory system
Why do larger animals, like a bullfrog, require a circulatory organ system, but animals such as a planarian do not?
· Diffusion alone is sufficient for nutrient exchange in the small body of a planarian, but not in a larger body like a bullfrog
A person with kidney failure who is undergoing dialysis would probably be restricted to a diet low in
· By undergoing dialysis you can not properly get rid of urea
Where in the kidney would you expect to find the cells with the greatest number of metabolically active mitochondria?
In the human, blood leaving the liver in the hepatic vein ordinarily has a higher concentration of _____ than other blood.
Which of the following is not a normal response to increased blood osmolarity in humans?
Production of more dilute urine
· Normal responses to increased blood osmolarity in humans could be increased permeability of the collecting duct to water, release of ADH by the pituitary gland, increased thirst, and reduced urine production
What is unique about transport epithelial cells in the ascending loop of Henle in humans?
Processing of filtrate in the proximal and distal tubules accomplishes what important function?
Maintaining a constant pH in body fluids
In a laboratory experiment with three groups, one group of people drinks pure water, a second group drinks an equal amount of beer, and a third group drinks an equal amount of concentrated salt solution all during the same time period. Their urine production is monitored for several hours. At the end of the measurement period, which group will have produced the greatest volume of urine and which the group the least?
Beer the most, salt solution the least
The primary nitrogenous waste excreted by birds is
· From people, its urea and from fish its ammonia
A cell that contains proteins enabling a hormone to selectively bind to its plasma membrane is called a
· Reception is essential to understanding which cells are target cells (cells that a hormone causes a cellular response in)
Why is it that some body cells respond differently to the same peptide hormones?
A target cell’s response is determined by the product of a signal transduction pathway
Which of the following statements about hormones is incorrect?
They travel through a dedicated pathway
· The following statements are true to hormones, they are secreted into the extracellular fluid, circulate in the blood or hemolymph, communicate through messages through out the body and not all cells respond to a particular hormone
Which of the following is not part of homeostatis promotion or maintenance?
A hormone is involved in a positive feedback loop
· Parts of homeostatis promotion or maintenance are a stimulus causes an endocrine cell to secrete a particular hormone, which decreases the stimulus, a hormone acts in an antagonistic way with another hormone, signal transduction brings about a response in the target cell, and secretin promotes an increase in the pH of the duodenum.
Which of the following statements about the hypothalamus is incorrect?
It secrets tropic hormones that act directly on the gonads
· It functions as an endocrine gland, is part of the central nervous system, is subject to feedback inhibition by certain hormones, and its neurosecretory cells terminate in the posterior pituitary are all true about the hypothalamus
Which combination of hormones helps a mother to produce milk and nurse her baby?
Oxytocin and prolactin
Iodine is added to commericially-prepared table salt to help prevent deficiencies of this essential mineral. Which glad requires iodine to function properly?
Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary directly affect the release of which of the following?
Which of the following glands shows both endocrine and exocrine activity?
All of the following are steroid hormones except
· Androgen, cortisol, estrogen and testosterone are all steroid hormones
Which of the following glands is controlled directly by the hypothalamus or central nervous system but not the anterior pituitary?
If the adrenal cortex were removed, which group of hormones would be most affected?
The notion that all animals are created perfect and comprised of constant essences that are imperfectly reflected (resulting in variation) can be attributed to
· Plato had the “Two Worlds concept” The creationists in order are 1. Plato 2. Aristotle 3. Linneaus. The non-creationist 1. Cuvier (catastrophism) The evolutionists in order are 1. Hutton (gradualism) 2. Lyell (uniformitarian; that these gradualism happens at the same rate) 3. Lamarck (adaptation) 4. Maltus (struggle for survival) 5. Wallace (natural selection) 6. Darwin (descent and modification)
In evolutionary terms, the more closely two species are related
In 1945, when the insecticide DDT was introduced, it killed most insects, including files and mosquitos, whenever it was sprayed. Now, however DDT often fails to kill larger number of insects because
Natural selection has favored the appearance of insect populations resistance to DDT
Prior to the work of _____ organisms were seen as _____.
Which of the following are major observations in biology?
All of the above; adaptation, organisms are diverse, many organisms have similar characteristics and homology
What is the main source of genetic variation in any given sexual species?
When imbalances occur in the sex ratio of sexual species that have two sexes, the members of the minority sex often receive a greater proportion of care and resources from parents than do the offspring of the majority sex. This is most clearly an example of
All of the above; genetic drift, natural selection, and gene flow
If all copies of a given locus have the same allele throughout the population then
Different looking organisms can have identical genes, this is known as
In embrology, what does the beta-catenin protein help to determine?
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