-inherit genes that have mutations that lead to cancer
Example of Hereditary Predisposition Cancer
-BRCA1 -breast cancer -50% to 80% higher risk if gene inherited
Example of Virus Associated Cancer
Human Papalloma Virus (HPV)
-compounds that cause genetic mutations
Example of Carcinogen Cancer
Cancer due to smoking stats
-1 billion men -250,000 million women -150,000 cases per year of lung cancer
Study done with 40,000 British Doctors (smoking, cancer)
789 deaths total 36 died of lung cancer, 36 smoked
-sexual reproduction -reduces genetic material by a half -Interphase 1, Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Telophase 1 -Interkinesis, Prophase 2, Mataphase 2, Anaphase 2, Telophase 2
-Same as mitosis -replicating DNA
-chromosome homologs find each other in pair -tetrads form, held together by 4 chromatids -crossing over
How many tetrads does a human have in prophase 1?
-tetrads line up in middle with each centromere of each chromosome attached to spindle fibers
-homologus chromosomes separate to opposite poles
-new haploid nuclei -independent assortment of maternal/paternal chromosomes
-short, resting phase -no DNA replication
-chromatids line up in middle -may not be identical because of crossing over
-centromeres separate -chromatids to opposite poles = chromosomes
-4 new haploid cells
-mistakes in meiosis -homologous chromosomes or chromatids do not separate normally -leads to trisomes - 2 copy gamate + 1 copy gamate (normal) = 3 copies of a gene
Example of Nondisjunction
Trisomy 21, down-syndrome
In humans, what can happen when trisomy's occur
miscarrages, spontaneous abortions
Stats on downsyndrome
-1 in 666 babies are born with down-syndrome -80% live to 55 -depends on the age of the mother
-individual inherits all genes from parents -Binary Fission, Budding, Fragmentation, Vegetative Reproduction, Parthenogenesis
-prokaryotes -divide in half -no mitosis
-new individual come from a mass of dividing cells -buds off and detaches from parent -genetically identical to parent
Example of budding
-body is broken in several pieces and each new piece becomes a new individual
Example of Fragmentation
algae, invertebrates, starfish
Starfish example (fragmentation)
California has oyster beds, which are eaten by starfish. Collected starfish, cut them up, and threw them back into the ocean
Vegetative Reproduction examples
-strawberries -quaking aspen
Quaking Aspen (vegetative reproduction)
-tree in Utah -47,000 trunks that are all genetically identical
-production of an organism from an unfertilized egg -males are haploid -females are diploid
Examples of parthenogenesis
lizards, arthropods, daphia
individuals that pool their genetic material into a single cell
One Parent sexual reproduction
-hermaphroditism -both gamates from a single parent -advantage for sesile organisms
Examples of one parent secual reproduction
-seed plants, sponges, flatworms, worms, snails
What is the advantage of one parent sexual reproduction?
increases the probablility of encountering a suitable mate
Two Parent sexual reproduction
-dioecious -separate male and female -many animals and some plants
More than 2 parents sexual reproduction
-humans have created alternative reproduction strategies -allows infertile parents to have children
How many couples have infertile problems?
one out of six
What are some assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that help infertile couples?
-invitro fertilization (IVF) -Surrogate Mothers
-test tube babies -eggs and sperm are fertilized in a petri dish then implanted in mother or frozen
Who was the first IVF baby?
-a woman carries and gives birth to another couple's baby -banned in England
How many 'parents' could be involved with surrogate mothers?
Alterations of generations
have both asexual and sexual reproduction
Who does alternations of generations
plants, fungi, protista
Levels of variability in asexual reproduction
-only variation when mutation occurs
What kinds of mutation can occur in bacteria's asexual reproduction?
conjunction, transformation, transduction
-when two bacteria get together and transfer DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined
-bacteria that have the ability to take up and incorporate DNA from environment -molecular biology
-virus' infect bacteria and carry DNA from other bacteria
Levels of variability in sexual reproduction
-mutations occur at low rate -in Meiosis and syngamy -independent assortment, crossing over, random fertilization
-metaphase 1 of meiosis -2^n = number of possible combinations -n = haploid number
Independent Assortment in humans
2^23= 8 million
-prophase 1 of meiosis -exchange of genetic material= new combinations
-one egg has 1 in 8 million possibilities -one sperm has 1 in 8 million possibilities -zygote= i in 64 trillion combinations
Example of Green Algae Protista: Chlamydomones
have both sexual and asexual reproduction adults are haploid -can do mitosis twice by asexual reproduction -can produce gamate cells and combine with opposite mating type to get diploid zygote
To choice asexual reproduction
-when environment is good, stable, and predictable
To choice asexual reproduction
-when environment is bad, with unfavorable conditions -produce a zygote that can withstand unfavorable conditions
Disadvantages of reproduction
-cost of sex; reduce reproductive rate -cost of time -cost of energy -break up optimal gene combinations
Advantages of reproduction
-produce genetically diverse young
Hypothesis for maintenance of sex
-unpredictable environmental changes -resource competition -production of rare genotypes
What drives sex due to unpredictable environmental changes?
What drives sex due to resource competition?
What drives sec due to production of rare genotypes?
What is the Red Queen Hypothesis
-evolutionary arms race -rapid genetic changes to keep up with adaptations of opponent to become different
-Australian Monk in 1800's -first person to come up with genetics
In 1865, Mendel discovered..
-distinct characteristics passed from generation to generation - no blending
Mendel Example German Honeybee Italian Honeybee
-hoped to get a perfect hybrid -results were the bee did very little work and attacked people
What did Mendel switch his work to in 1856?
Monohybrid Cross White vs Purple
F1= all purple F2= 705 purple, 224 white (3:1 ratio)
Monohybrid Cross Round vs. Wrinkled
F1= all round F2= 5474 round, 1850 wrinkled (3:1 ratio)
Law of Peas
-alternative forms of factors -for each inherited characteristic, there are 2 alleles -pollen and eggs have one allele from each characteristic -when two alleles are different, one is fully expressed and one is masked
Law of Peas: Pollen and egg have one allele for each characteristic
-allele pairs separate during gamate formation -random fusion of gamates
Law of Peas: one allele is fully express and one is masked
-Dominant over recessive -purple over white -round over wrinkled
Law of Segragation
-alleles that remain distinct -do not blend
identical alleles RR or rr
different alleles Rr
-what traits are expressed
genetic make up
Rr x Rr phenotype ratio gentotype ratio
Phenotype ratio: 3:1 Genotype ratio: 1:2:1
-to distinguish true breeding or not
Test Cross: R_ x rr genotype of all round? genotype of half round, half wrinkled?
Rr Rr, rr
-cross involving two traits
Dihybrid cross example: round/yellow x wrinkled/green
F1: all round, all yellow F2: 9 RY, 3 Ry, 3 rY, 1 rr
Predictions for F2 generation in round/yellow x wrinkled/greed test cross
1. round/yellow = RY wrinkled/green = ry linked traits 2. Law of independent assortment 4 gamates: RY, Ry, rY, ry
Law of independent assortment
genes for each trait segregate independently located on nonhomologus chromosomes
AaBbCc x AaBbCc
Probability Powerball example
1/55 x 1/54 x 1/53 x 1/52 x 1/51 x 1/42 = 1/146 million chances
outcome that produces event _______________________________ total number of possible outcomes
0 to 1
0 in probability
1 in probability
Rule of multiplication
Probability Flipping coins 2 heads
1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4
Probability 4 girl children
1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/16 chances of getting 4 girls in a row
Rule of addition
several traits to get an outcome
Probability Rolling a 7 with two dice
any combo: 1/6 x 1/6 = 1/36 chances 1/36 + 1/36 + 1/36 + 1/36 + 1/36 + 1/36= 1/6 ways to get a 7
Example of intermediate dominance: Snapdragons
P: CrCr red x CwCw white F1: CrCw pink F2: 1 red: 2 pink: 1 white
Example for Multiple Allele: ABO Blood Type
IAIA or IAi= A IBIB or IBi= B IAIB= AB ii= O
What are the antigens for A, B, AB, and O
A= A B= B AB- A and B O= None
What are the antibodies for A, B, AB, O?
A= anti-B B= anti-A AB- none O- anti-A and anti-B
What blood type is the universal donor?
What blood type is the universal acceptor?
What blood type is codominant?
What blood type is recessive?
What is the most frequent blood type?
Example of complementation: white sweet peas x white sweet peas
F1: all purple F2: 9 purple: 7 white
Why are the white sweet peas x white sweet peas complimentary for purple?
A and B genes depend on each other to produce purple phenotype
one gene masks another gene
Epistasis example: Labrador retrievers
BB or Bb = black AA or Ab= chocolate aa= yellow
What does the aa in Labrador retriever do?
blocks pigment no matter what other gene the dog has
-major genes control trait -products interact with other genes
Modifier gene example: Human eye color
BB or Bb= brown eyes bb= blue eyes Green and grey eyes= genetically blue Black and hazel eyes= genetically brown
characters are controlled by 5 to 10 genes
Polygenic gene example: Human Pigmentation
-determined by 3 genes -vary in melanin
-single gene has many mutations
sickle cell anemia albino tigers white cats with blue eyes
percent of individuals carrying a gene who actually show phenotypes
degree to which the trait/gene is expressed
Example of incomplete penetrance
-caused by a dominant allele -
Himalayan Rabbits example
normal temp= core is white, extremities are black cold temp= all black warm temp= all white
as long as environment was constant, if mono-zygotic twins shared more genes than dizygotic twins it was due to genes
1st degree relatives
parents, siblings, dizygotic twins
2nd degree relatives
3rd degree relatives
Twin studies when identical twins were raised separate
shared traits= 100% genetic
Single gene defects
autosomal chromosomes, sex chromosomes, chromosonal diseases, multifactorial disorders
What is a human pedigree
family tree that shows who has what trait
Wooly hair example Ww(Grandson) x ww(normal)= all kids will have wooly hair
-dominant allele -1/8 wooly hair, 12.5%
Autosomal Recessive examples
sickle cell anemia, PKU
Characteristics of autosomal recessive diseases
-parents are clinically normal -siblings are only affected relatives -males and females are affected equally -parents may be in the same blood line
-most common genetic disorder in US -1 in 2500 whites -1 in 25 are carriers -causes by mutant protein -interferes with cell's ability to manage chloride -Untreated= die within 5 years -Treated= can live to 30's
-single bad gene
Charecteristics of autosomal dominant disease
-affected individual will have half normal kids and half affected kids -normal children will have normal children -males and females are affected equally
-95% penetrance -1 in 5000 individuals in US --degenerative disease of the nervous system -carried on because of the late onset of symptoms -children have a 50% chance
Symptoms of Huntington's Disease
-starts with irritability, clumsiness, forgetfulness -progresses to staggering, slurred speech, uncontrollable flinging limbs, lose ability to talk, walk, and stand up -suffer for 15 to 20 years
Lake Marcarno, Venesuela (Huntington's Disease)
-300 of 7000 descendants have Huntington's -found a linked marker on chromosome 4
What is Huntington's caused by?
-extra copies of trinucleotide repeat CAG -37 to 120 repeats of CAG
-much higher in males -phenotype is never transmitted from father to son
-1 in 5000 males in US -sex-linked recessive -high frequency in Royal Family
Female carrier x normal male XhX x XY
Half females affected, half males affected
What are purines?
Adenine and Guanine
What are pyrimadines?
cytosine, thymine, and uracil
A pairs with T C pairs with G hydrogen bonds between pairs
Watson and Crick
Two chains of alternating sugar and phosphate bonded together by hydrogen bonds "Double Helix"
E. Coli Used 14N and 15N(heavy) Tried conservative, dispersive, and semi-conservative
Meselson and Stahl: Conservative
-Nothing will change -preserve DNA molecule, new ones would just form -2 separate bands, one high and one low
Meselson and Stahl: dispersive
-mixed 14N and 15N -one band -DNA fragments from 14N and 15N throughout the new strand
Meselson and Stahl: semi-conservative
-old strand acts at a template -One strand of 14N and one strand of 15N
After a second round of replication, Meselson and Stahl's results between dispersive and semi-conservative were:
-one band in the dispersive test -two bands in the semi-conservative test
each DNA is recorded onto mRNA -similar to DNA replication -uses RNA polymerase -one pair at a time -Uracil!
-protein synthase -decode mRNA by ribosomes tRNA brings amino acids to ribosomes
What are some stop codons
UAA, UAG, UGA
What do stop codons to?
release polypeptide chain
replace one nucleotide with another
-no change in amino acid -CCC to CCA, both are proline
-one amino acid is substituted with another -insignificant change
What disease can misense mutation cause?
-base substitution leads to a stop codon -makes short proteins
-add or delete nucleotide -more disastrous effects
What are causes of frameshift mutations?
spontaneous, mutagens, transportable element
SNP's single nucleotide polymorphims
-3 million base pairs differ -take DNA to compare with others and asses probability of disease
GINA of 2008
-federal law that protects consumers about genetic discrimination
Wallace and Darwin proposed:
-species arise from preexisting species -evolve from ancestral forms -natural selection
-organisms have a built in drive towards perfection -became adapted when using or not using their parts: Appendix in humans -modifications during a lifetime could be passed onto the next generation
What was Lanmark right about?
-Earth was old -evolution is gradual -adaptation is important
When did Darwin and Wallace publish their findings?
Observations made by Darwin and Wallace
-without environmental pressure every species multiplies exponentially -under field conditions, population sizes seem stable over long periods of time -large amount of variation within species -variation is largely heritable
Conclusions made by Darwin and Wallace
-not all eggs and sperm become zygotes -not all zygotes become adults -individuals with heritable variations that are favorable will survive in greater numbers and reproduce more offspring
The process of Natural Selection
-a differential survival and reproduction of individuals that have different heritable traits -gene codes for lower indivdual reproduction success (eventually eliminated under selection pressure) -genes successful in fertile mates is increased -heritable traits are pheonotypes
Causes of Natural Selection
environment, biotic, and abiotic
Consequences of Natural Selection
-certain phenotypes leave more offspring than others in a particular environment
total of all genes of an individual in a population
evolution through natural selection of slight change variations
Modern Theory of Evolution
-continue to modify Darwin's theory -well supported that makes testicle predictions -confirmed by molecular biology -population genetics
-evolutionary changes in genotype and allele frequencies in population in response to environmental changes
Industrial Melanin example: Peppered Moths in England
-2 color morphs (light and dark) -1848: 1st black peppered moth captured -1895: 98% of moths were melanic in industrial areas of England
HBD Kettlewell, 1950
-marked, released, and recaptured moths -Relative survivals were caused by differential survival due to differential predation of birds -current environment plays a role on with moth was favored
Myocrobacterium Tuberculosis example
-5% of 8 million people have drug resistant TB (MDRTB) -changes TCG to TTG (rpoB) -prevents rifampin from binding to proteins effectively
change in genetic make up over time
-extension of Mendelian genetics -describe frequencies of alleles in genotypes for a whole population
group of individuals of the same species in a localized area that can potentially interbreed
AA AA Aa Aa aa Frequency of A Frequency of a Frecuency of carriers Frequency of affected
A: 6/10 a: 4/10 carriers: 2/5 affected: 1/5
Hardy Weinberg Law
in sexually reproducing population, a single generation of random mating will produce stable frequency of alleles and genotypes under certain conditions
What is p?
the frequency of the dominant allele
What is q?
the frequency of the recessive allele
What is p²?
frequency of homozygous dominant
What is q²?
the frequency of homozygous recessive
What is 2pq?
the frequency of heterozygous
How many babies in the US have PKU?
1 out of 10,000
PKU example 1 out of 10,000 babies q? p? 2pq?
q= .01 p= .99 2pq= .0198
Why doesn't Blood Type O people become extinct in the Cholera pandemics?
Balance with the other blood types
What are Blood Type O people more susceptibile to?
Vibro paracite Malaria Syphilis
What are the Blood Type AB people resistant to?
Why are Blood Type O people resistant to syphilis
syphilis originated in the Native American era
What are the 5 assumptions from Hardy Weinberg?
-large populations means there is no room for chance -no mutation -no migrations means there are no genes entering or leaving -random mating -all genotypes have equal reproductive success which means there is no natural selection
What happens if the Hardy Weinberg assumptions hold?
-one extreme phenotype is favored over the other -shifts phenotype in one direction -gradual replacement of allele
Example of Directional Selection
-both extremes are favored over the intermediate -intermediate is lowest
Example of Disruptive Selection
Black Bellied Seed Crackers
-intermediate selected over extremes -increase frequency of average phenotype -reduced amounts of genetic variation
Example of stabilizing selection
Human Baby weights
What does Stabilizing Selection favor in the weight of human babies?
5lbs to 9 lbs
-indivuduals reproductive contribution to gene pool of next generation -survival and reproduction
¯W¯ -Survival and reproduction of phenotype compared to best phenotype in a particular environment
Selection of coefficient=
-relative measure of selection against inferior phenotype 0 to 1, 1 is lethal
What was the industrial melanin peppered moth's slection?
What can directional selection lead to?
What base pair is changed in Sickle Cell Anemia?
A to T
What codon is changed in Sickle Cell Anemia?
GAG to GUG
Normal Allele for hemoglobin
HBsHBs phenotype: relative survival:
HBsHB+ phenotype: relative survival:
mild anemia 90%
HB+HB+ phenotype: relative survival:
What is the HBs allele resistant to?
In countries with malaria: HbsHbs phenotype: relative survival:
anemia, resistant to malaria 20%
In countries with malaria: HbsHb+ phenotype: relative survival:
mild anemia, resistant to malaria 100%
In countries with malaria: Hb+Hb+ phenotype: relative survival:
normal, susceptible to malaria 75%
What mode of selection is selected for in Malaria environments?
What mode of selection is favored for in normal, no malaria environment?
-commonly violated -genotype and phenotype always influence it's choice of mate
Example of non-random mating
Barn swallows choosing mates with the longest tail
-select mates with specific phenotype -inbreeding
mating between relatives
What does inbreeding lead to? Shortage of?
many populations experience gene flow
What does migration do?
increase genetic variation
-change gene frequencies due to chance -small populations
-very different allele frequency -high numbers of very rare alleles
Old Order Amish example
-founder effect -3 couples in 1770's -61 cases of Chronsoplastic Dwarfism in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
How many cases of Chrondoplastic Dwarfism are in the world? In Lancaster?
In 1984, how many Amish were carriers of Chrondoplastic Dwarfism?
-numerous species emerge from a common ancestor -ancestor has a lot of variation
-Many types of beaks specialized for what they eat -14 species
What kinds of birds are the 14 Darwin Finches?
6 ground finches 6 tree finches 2 warblow finches
Where did the original Darwin Finches come from?
How many Darwin Finches are on each island?
3 to 10
Why don't the 14 species of Darwin Finches breed?
Outcomes of Secondary Contact
-Fuse back together into one population -Continue to diverge -Form hybrid zone -Extinction of one population -Hybrid offspring create 3rd species
Example of a hybrid zone
-unrestricted growth -no environmental restrictions -rate depends of the number of individuals in a population -no population can maintain exponential growth -only find in early phases of growth, when resources are abunddant
Cod Fish exponential growth
Only 6 years to fill up the Atlantic Ocean
House Fly exponential growth
half a year to get 5.5 trillion flies
Discrete Exponential Growth
net reproductive rate # of females produced ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯ # of females current
-all the characteristics that impact reproduction and survival in a particular environment
Example of life history: Fruit Flies No Virgins? 1 Virgin? 8 Virgins?
No virgin: survived much better 1 virgin: survived ok 8 virgins: dying
Lack's Example of life history: Clutch size 3 eggs 2 eggs 4 eggs
fewer fledged birds in nests with 4 eggs because there was not enough food
r selective Life History
-opportunistic -rapid completion of life cycle in unpredicted/temporary environments -high r -density independent
K selective Life History
-equilibrium light history -competing for resources in a stable/predictable environment -often near carrying capacity -success depends on competitive ability of young -few well provisioned offspring -density dependent
Which recovers quickly: r selective or K selective?
Which recovers slowly: r selective or K selective
When was a growth surge? and why?
-10,000 years ago -more dependable food supply: agriculture
How many people were around during the BC/AD era?
How many people were around in 1650?
Why was there another growth surge in 1650?
industrial and scientific revolution
How many people were around in 1804
How many people were around in 1930?
How many people were around in 1960?
How many people were around in 1975?
How many people were around in 1987?
How many people were around in 1999?
How many people were around in 2011?
What is the world birth rate?
What is the world death rate?
t= ln2 ¯¯¯¯¯¯ r
Where is 98% of the growth world wide?
in developing countries
What countries will be dominant is growth within the next 20 years?
India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Indonesia
What is the cause of population growth?
stable age distribution
What is the cause of population growth in humans?
-death rate going down -improved sanitation -improved medical care -improved nutrition
↑ literacy in women
↓ mortality in children under 5 ↓ babies born
How much more resources are consumed by developed nations?
20 to 100 times more
What country has a growing age distribution?
What country has a stable age distribution?
What country has a declining age distribution?
If r=0 in India, how long would it take for their age distribution to become stable?
What are the signs that death rate is increasing?
-food production decline -half of all people who die are in Africa under 5 years old -Mega Cities
What is the carrying capacity of Earth with the standard of living in the US?
Organism 1: - Organism 2: -
Organism 1: + Organism 2: -
Organism 1: + Organism 2: +
Organism 1: + Organism 2: 0
Organism 1: - Organism 2: 0
Which interactions live in symbiosis?
parasitism, mutualism, commelsalism
-living together -close, long tern interactions
-range of biotic and abiotic conditions in which organisms survives and reproduces -all the ecological possibilities --direct to critical variables
- All the resources that an organism can theoretically use -physiological limits
-portion of fundamental niche that is actually used
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Gause, 1934 -limit to the amount of niche overlap that will allow 2 species to coexist
-2 or more organisms that use the same limited resource -mutually negative
competition among species
competition within a species
trying to obtain resources before competitor
-actively preventing competitor from obtaining resources
Interference Competition:Antelope in Africa
-males defend territory -mate with any female in his territory
Interference Competition: Plants
-use toxins to interfere with competitors
Outcomes of competitive exclusion
-one species becomes locally extinct -either species winds depending on conditions -stable coexistence of both species
Example of competitive exclusion: Starlings in NY
1891 starlings did well and took bluebird territory bluebird population declined
Example of Competition in the Lab: P. aurelia: alone and mixed P. cadatium: alone and mixed
P. aurelia: -Alone: good, grows to carrying capacity -Mixed: suffers P. cadatium: -Alone: good, grows to carrying capacity -Mixed: extinction
Park experimented with flower beetles
-there was a shift in competition depending on the temperature and humidity Cold and dry: T. confusium Hot and wet: T. Castareum
MacArthur: Warblurs Resource partitioning
-studied 5 species -sympatric on spruce trees -each species foraged a different zone on the tree
-change is species traits
-populations have similar morphology
-populations that differ in morphology
Connel: Barnicles experiment
Chtharnalus: live on upper part and when semibalenous are removed them settle everywhere Semibaleneous: live on lower part and when Ctharnalus are removed there is no change
-interactions where both species benefit -Endosymbiotic hypothesis
-Lynn Margulis -early prokeyotes engulfed other prokaryotes 1.5 million years ago and became mitochondria and chloroplasts -when genes sequenced they showed up as Bacterium
Present Day mutualism: Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
-plants need nitrogen -nitrogen fixation -symbiotic bacteria invade roots of legumes and fix large amounts of nitrogen and leave extra nitrogen as ammonia for plants to use
Plant and animal mutualism
-defense -pollination -seed dispersal
Plant and Animal mutualism example: Ants and Acasia trees
without ants: 44% survival and grow 16 cm with ants: 72% survival and grow 104 cm
How do ants help acasia trees?
protect from herbivores
How do acacia trees help ants?
providing food and shelter
-one organism eats the other -strong natural selection pressure -favoring adaptions that best counter the other participant -evolutionary arms race -Red Queen Hypothesis
Predation example: Beetles and Grasshoppers
Beetles have a strong foul smelling chemical and when grasshoppers attack then sneak up behind, stuff it into the ground, and eat it's head
Prey avoidance adaptations
-very strong selection pressure
Evolution (prey avoidance adaptation)
trial and error tinkering through natural selection
Poison (prey avoidance adaptation)
Monarch Butterflies Plants
Aposemetic Coloration (prey avoidance adaptation)
mimicry of a distasteful species by one that is not
Batesian Mimicry example
King snakes and coral snakes
both distasteful species mimic each other
Mulleriam Mimicry example
Monarch Butterflies and Viceroy Butterflies
Cryptic Coloration (prey avoidance adaptation)
Cryptic Coloration example
Peppered Moth ....Peeta
Escape in time or space (prey avoidance adaptation)
-unpredictable to predetors
Example of escape in time
17 year cicadas
Escape in numbers (prey avoidance adaptation)
-too many come out at one time
Escape in numbers example
17 year cicadas
Escape in size (prey avoidance adaptation)
too big for predetors
Early detection (prey avoidance adaptation)
moths are sensitive to signals that bats send out and dive when they detect them
Ineducable defenses (prey avoidance adaptations)
-some organisms have defenses in response to predators around
Ineducable defenses example
Mussels have thicker shells when predators are present
Outcomes of predation
-cyclic changes in population size of both the predator and prey -predator population size fluctuates less than prey size -cycle out of phase
Hare and lynx
-pattern of 10 year oscillation -predation was driven by lynx and food supply -predators may not be the only reason for cycles
Gause example: P cadatium and Didineium Nasotom
-together with oats= extinct in 4-5 days -adds stones= didineum when extinct, no stable cycles
Huffiler experiment prey mite and predator mite
40 orange and red ball universe: no stable cycles 120 orange and red ball universe: vaseline barriers, Popsicle sticks, stable cycles for 9 months
Optimal foraging strategies
-predators should maximize net benfit
Bluegill and Daphnia low prey density high prey density
low prey density: eat everything high prey density: eat the biggest and middle sized fish
RT Paine: Seastar Pisaster
-found 15 different prey species removed starfish: 15 to 8 species
-a sequence of evolutionary events in which two interactions species modify their interactions -both species have to be effective by interaction -not commensilism or ammensalism
Example of coevolution: antibiotics
-moth and bacteria coevolved for millions of years -antibiotic resistance is developing
-government released myxoma virus to rabbit population -mortality of rabbits decreased as the years went on because they were becoming resistant to the virus -intermediate virolence selected
an organism that obtains its nutrients from the host
-transmission to new hosts, before old one dies -establish within a new host
Transmission Adaptations: Schistosoma Mansumi
Male and female worms in veins around intestines and mate → eggs → leave body with feces to freshwater → hatch into mircidum and has 24 hours to infect a fresh water snail → inside snail and asexually reproduce to cercria → pentrate into broken skin in humans
sheep liver → poop → eggs → hatch → snail → cough up slime ball → ant eat slime ball → parasite affects neuroganglia of ants and become negetively geotropic→ ants go to the top of the blades of grass→ sheep eat the grass
When do schistosome cercaria release their eggs?
When do rabbit fleas breed?
When a rabbit is pregnant
schistosome adults will mask themselves wit host antigens from ABO blood group
Hit and run parasite
-stimulate the immune system in one area of the body and migrate to where the immune system cannot go
Where can the immune system not go?
Hit and run: ascaris
larval migration eggs go to the intestines and migrate to the right side of heart to lungs to get turned into worms
Live in the immune system parasite: toxoplasma
live in the immune cells cat litter boxes
Live in the immune system: mycobacterium tuberculosis
macrophages prevent defensive responses of cells to travel to lungs
How many people have LTBI
Live in the immune system: HIV
live in cells that make antibodies
How were humans exposed to HIV?
-most complex life style -single stranded RNA makes DNA
protein than envelope 2 identical strands of RNA → attach to cells → dump proteins →RNA use enzyme (reverse transcriptase) to make DNA → cDNA → becomes incorporated into DNA → provirus cells become virus factories → viral genes → HIV protease
Helper T Cells
-CD4 membrane -HIV has proteins latched to CD4 cells -active antibody protection -get destroyed by virus -Antibodies form, but are not effective -immune system is destroyed
What does AIDS do?
-destroyed Helper T cells and it suppresses the immune system
Opportunistic Infection: toxoplasma
30% of AIDS patients
Opportunistic Infection: Pneumocytosis
-suppresses the immune system and get phemona carnii 10% to 25% deaths in AIDS patients
How many Helper T cells show AIDS?
200 or less
The initial exposure to HIV
-T cells raise -flu-like symptoms -misdiagnosed as mono -symptoms disappear in a few weeks -latent for 5 to 10 years in the body
Vaccine for HIV
-building antibody to the envelope protein -prevent the virus from binding to CD4 receptors -high heterogeneity virus
High heterogeneity in HIV
-reverse transciptase does not accurately copy, copy errors -HIV replicated 3000 to 5000 times in 10 years
Drugs for HIV
-18 anti HIV drugs approved by the FDA -NRTI -Protease inhibitor -Fusion inhibitor -HAART
NRTI- Nucleoside RT inhibitor
-early in life cycle -resembles nucleoside for making DNA -tricks reverse transcriptase into stopping early
-late in the life cycle -messes up protease, does not cut well -defective virus
-inhibit virus from binding to CD4 cells
-highly active anti-retro viral therapy -combination of drugs, up to 3 HIV drugs used
How many AIDS cases have been reported in the US?
How many people have died from AIDS in US (December 2010)
How many cases of AIDS were around in 1981-1989
How many cases of AIDS were around in 1989-1991
another 100,000 peaked in mid 90's
How many new cases of AIDS were there in 2010?
Who are the leading deaths for AIDS?
-males ages 25-44 -homosexuals -heterosexuals (18%) -IV drug users -homosexuals and IV drug users (80%)
How many people are unaware they are HIV+?
How many males are HIV+ in the US?
1 in 75
How many adults are HIV+ in Subsahara Africa
What can pass on HIV?
semen, blood, cervical secretions
-the study of mechanisms of behavior -genetics vs. environment -instincts vs. learned
-evoltion of animal behavior -behavior is dictated by their need of survival -not a conscious decision -adapted -shaped by natural selection
What are the 4 F's?
-feeding -fighting -fleeting -reproduction
Egg Shell removal in Black Headed Seagulls
-advantage for gulls to remove egg shells soon after offspring hatch -increase distance from eggshell to chick decreases predation -natural selection selects that parents wait an hour to remove egg shells
-small portion of stimuli that evokes response
Stickleback and red belly
males take care of young, protect the nest only aggressive when there was a red belly above, no matter the shape
What was the stimulus in the Stickleback example
a red belly
Ground nesting birds
-geese, gulls -moms rotate eggs and when they fall out the birds roll it back into the nest, no matter if it is an egg or not
What is the stimulus in the ground nesting bird example
a round object
Chicks respond differently to the same shape, flown in different directions
goose shape: no response eagle shape: fear, alarm response
Odors from pheromones trigger behavior
-mammals: to mark territory -insect: to mate -males with large antennas pick up signals
Complex interations of stimulus-response
-some behaviors only result where there is a series of interactions to complete behavior -courtship displays
-genetically induced behavior -fixed for life
-environmentally induced behavior -modified by experience
Strong genetic component: maze running in rats
-bred dull male and female rats and bright male and female rats -selected for maze running -after 7 generations, there was little overlap
Strong genetic component: killer bees and Italian bees
-killer bees: faster workers, but aggressive -italian bees: less productive, but passive -mated together: aggressive
Strong learning component: Song and the white crown sparrow
-Raise male sparrows in isolation: cannot produce song -Males hear a song of another bird: produces normal song after 200 days
Strong learning component: Fruit Flies
-chemical o: shock -chemical m: no shock -Choice: go to chemical m 90% of the time
-particular response to a stimulus at a particular age without reward or punishment
-ignore persistent stimuli without reward or punishment -filter out background -gradual decline of response to insignificant stimulus -cry wolf
-Pavlov dogs -link 2 or more stimuli with a reward or punishment
Show dog meat: salivate metronome ticking: no response Meat and metronome: conditioned and salivate Metronome: salivate
Trial and error learning
-operent conditioning -mistakes are punished -correct responses are rewarded -learn by doing
-store information for later use
Spatial learning: wasps
-live in the ground -when they leave nest, they use land markers to remember where nest is -experiment: researchers moved land marks when wasps left. wasps could not find nest
-reasoning -adapt past experience to new situation
Insight learning: chimps
boxes and sticks a banana fell chimp stacked boxes to whack down the bananas
Advantages to instinct
-no past experiences -less complex neural circuitry -faster, perfect response every time
Advantages to learning
-response to unpredictable stimulus -change during lifetime due to experience
Disadvantage to instinct
-response can be given to the wrong stimulus
Disadvantage to learning
-requires complex neural system -room for mistakes
set of conspecifics that remain together for a period of time and potentially interact
Benefit is great that cost for the individual
-join a group -adaptation to group living will improve the fitness of the individual
Automatic costs for joining a group
-increased competition for food and mates -increased risk of infection
Possible costs for joining a group
-risk of exploitation of parental care -risk that conspecifics will kill offsping
Possible benefits for joining a group
-predator defense -foraging efficiency -improved defense of limited resources -territory defense -improved care of young
cross crossing targets makes it harder for the predator to pick out prey
Active Defense (anti-predator mechanism)
-repel the predator
Active defense: Musk Oxen
males form a protective circle around young
Groups form because of large prey
-improve foraging effienceny -the amount of prey is greater in a group than the individual
Example of forming a group because of large prey: seagulls
a single bird: ok 3 birds: better 6 birds: even better, work together to herd fish together
Groups form as information centers
-improve foraging efficiency -prey is scattered, unpredictable, and too busy to eat alone -tell others about prey -vultures, osperlys
Example of information centers
-bring back non schooling fish: no response -bring back schooling fish: communication
Groups that use localized resource
-only resource around
Example of forming a group because of a localized resource: Seals
-breed on beaches with big cliffs -don't interact with each other -limited number of locations for breeding
Battle of the sexes: Females
-larger gametes -invest more in young
Battle of the sexes: Males
-smaller gametes -invest less in young
Sexual selection in males
-flashier, ornamental, colorful -increase chance of mating -decrease chance of survival -attract females and predator
-mate competition -competition within a sex to get the best territory/resources
-preference of members of one sex for particular traits of the other sex -female mate choice -females prefer particular traits -linked to mate quality -females improve their reproductive success by getting quality mates -directly benefit by getting food, territory -indirectly benefit by passing on good genes
Example of intersexual selection: Widow Birds
females select the longest tails of mates
-behavior that seems to cost the individual -counter productive
-WD Hamilton -getting genes to the nest generation by helping relatives -inclusive fitness
-social system in bees, wasps, termites, ants, etc -division of labor -cooperative care of young -most individuals are sterile
Unfertilized eggs in eusociality
Fertilized eggs in eusociality
If a queen is fertilized by one male: what are the daughters like
100% like the father 50% like the queen 75% like each others sisters
Why are the sisters in a eusociality 75% and not 50% like normal
more copies of the genes are passed onto the next generation
Example of Hotspots: Freshwater muscles
-300 species -endemic to North America -endangered
Hotspot example: salamander
>50 species of Plethodon -Southern Appalacia -endemic in "Sky Islands"
Where is the most endangered area?
Center of adaptive radiation: North American sunfish and bass
Center of adaptive radiation: South American catfish
90 species fish evolution
Center of adaptive radiation: orchids
-1500 species in Costa Rica -56 species in North and South Carolina -greater diversity at low altitudes and latitudes
How many species are named?
there are names for only <10% of species
How many Cichlidae are there world wide?
Where are there endemics of Cichlidae?
African Lake Malawi
South America was isolated for 50 million years from other continents Marsupials evolved after Gondwana Came from South America
Where are Marsupials now?
Australia and New Guinea
Gondwanan origins Africa: Ostirich South America: Rhea New Guinea: Cassowary New Zeland: Kiwi Austrailia: Emu
> 80% of plants, vertebrates are endemic
-migrated from Asia -now much more cold tolerant
↑ island= _________
What does isolation depress?
Passenger pigeon in 1914 Dodo bird in 1680 Carolina Parakeet
What species are vulnerable to extinction?
Where do most of the species on earth exist?
7% of the land 23.5 N and S of the equator
Where is the greatest variety in ecosystems?
How many coral reefs died in 1998?
-highest of tropical mountaintops because of ecological specialization -narrow bands of climate
Where is there great beta diversity?
Great Smoky Mountains
Where is species diversity greatest?
lowlands and tropics
-genetic and morphological diversity between populations across a geographical range
range change invasions of exotic species
Interchanges between North and South America
placental carnivores, horses, camels, llamas came from North America sloths, anteaters, and possums came from South America
-orderly development of communities with increasing physical, taxonomic, and ecological diversity -ecological succession
Ecological succession: Ross Biological Reserve
60 years old use for a model for ecological restoration
How many plant species does South America have?
1/3 of all plants
Tropical: hundreds of species North America: sassafras and spice bush
Rain fall, sunlight, temperature
primary productivity and stability
Resource abundance, variety, reliability
Range of food types
extends the resource space and morphological niche space for consumers
Long term stability and subtle seasonality
permit ecological specialization and similarity
Why do tropical species tend to have small geographical ranges?
to be specialized ecologically
Why do tropical species tend to have complex interdependencies?
they are sensitive to change
How many King Fishers are in Manu? US?
5 and 1
Physical evidence to global climate change
-glaciers, sea, and atmospheric temperatures -Artic sea has shrunk to half the size since 1980 at 7 million km2 -glaciers are accelerating because of lubrication by melting water
Biological evidence of global climate change
-41% levels of CO2 above from historical levels
Global Climate Change: Superstorm Sandy
-highest hurricane -warmer and higher sea rearranged pressure systems over the North Atlantic -came farther North and turned in
-can be continued for the foreseeable future -supportable without degrading
How many amphibians are extinct or endangered?
Reduction in area and increasing isolation
-lowers viability of smaller populations -local extinction -
How many bird species were lost due to turning Barro Colorado into the Panama Canal?
Small/Large patches lose species fastest
Minimizing extinction probabilities
-current population size and history -productivity of environment for that species -growth potential -variability of above factors -projected long-term changes in environment -immigration/emigration -risk factors of extinct and endangered species
What do you need to know to create ecological restoration?
diversity in habitat remnants decline as species tolerances are over come
6th mass extinction greatest
Thousands of birds and mammals have gone extinct since ____
Impact= Population x Affluence X Technology
human population growth
-consists of all the organisms and environments in a given area -all communities and abiotic factors in an area -most inclusive level of hierarchy in a biological organization -function as a self-sufficient unit
-comes out t a particular level that is hidden at lower levels -energy flow -nutrient cycling
-start with an autotrophic organism -primary consumers that are herbivores -secondary consumers that are carnivores that eat herbivores -tertiary consumers that are carnivores that eat carnivores -detrivores that derive energy from organic waste
How much energy is used by producers?
1% to 3% from light energy
complete set of food links in a community
-all consumers get energy directly or indirectly from producers in an ecosystem -rate at which light energy goes to chemical energy -total rate in an ecosystem from light energy to chemical energy -amount of energy available to consumers
Total rate in an ecosystem from light energy to chemical energy
gross primary productivity GPP
Rate at which light energy goes to chemical energy
amount of energy available to consumers
GPP-RSP= net primary productivity (NPP)
First law of thermodynamics
-conservation of energy -energy input is either stored or used to do work GPP= NPP+RSP
Second Law of thermodynamics
-total amount of energy in the universe is declining -always increases in an isolated system -RSP is the energy cost for maintaining order
What sets an energy budget for ecosystems?
amount of energy extracted from sunlight by producers
Why is there a loss of energy at each trophic level?
-they don't consume all energy -90% lost
When limits the food chain length?
inefficiency energy transfer
-total weight of organisms
What is an efficient way to get calories?
eat lower on the food chain
How many amino acids do we get from eating mean?
-toxic substances are dumped into ecosystems at an alarmingly high rate
Toxic substances are persistent in the environment
-they cannot be degraded -organisms acquire toxic chemicals from the environment
As toxic substances are retained they_____
become more concentrated in successive trophic levels
-increased concentration of 10000x as it goes up the food chain -in eagles DDT interfered with egg shell production
When was DDT banned in the US?
banned persistent organic pollutants
Atrazine in frogs
herbicide common in US male frogs become hermaphrodites
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