Biology 2nd Quarter Exam Study Guide Cell Parts and Functions: State the parts of the cell theory Discuss major differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Functions of: Nucleus Golgi apparatus Lysosome Mitochondria Chloroplast Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Ribosome Cell Membrane and Cellular Transport: Define Selective permeability What major compounds comprise (make up) the cell membrane? Be familiar with the parts/functions of the cell membrane. Define Active and Passive Transport. Define Osmosis and Diffusion Define Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Isotonic- be able to determine how a cell will respond in these solutions. The Cell Cycle: Why problems occur if cells become too large? What is the cause of the problem? List the steps of the cell cycle and know briefly what occurs at each phase. Know the role of the spindle fibers in mitotic cell division. Describe the outcome of mitotic cell division in terms of number of cells produced and number of chromosomes compared to the parent cell. Be able to identify the 4 stages of mitosis. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration: Be able to identify the energy molecule for all cells and how it works to release energy. List the products and reactants of photosynthesis. Be able to identify the structures within a chloroplast and the functions of each in terms of stages of photosynthesis. Write the equation for Cellular Respiration. List the order of events of Cellular Respiration List types of fermentation and know how fermentation compares to Cellular Respiration DNA Structure and Function: List the major function of DNA and where DNA is located. List the Monomer (building blocks) of DNA and what components make it up. Be able to describe DNA structure (backbone, nitrogen bases, base pairing).