Classification of organisms. Chart of classification.
Kingdoms: Protista, Animalia, Fungi, Plantae
Domians: Eukaryea Bacteria Archaea
Found in all aerobic organisms.
Crucial for making ATP
Weak organisms die, strong ones live on so the population evolves.
A bond where atoms share a pair of electrons
Electronegativity trends and symbol
Increasing from lower left of the periodic table to upper right
S- is more electronegative, electron is closer to this molecule
S+ is less electronegative
Polar covalent bond
When the two electrons in a bond are shared unequally because of electronegativity. Look at each atom in a molecule and where it is on the periodic table and relate their electronegativities to all of them.
Hydrogen bond, when molecules are attracted to each other because of electronegativity and form mini bonds. The bonds form between hydrogen and either Oxygen, Nitrogen, or Sulfur, and only when Oxygen, Nitrogen, or Sulfur are electronegative (S-).
Property of "organic"
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
Structure of a macromolecule
HO - R - R - R - R - H
How are macromolecules built?
HO - R - H + HO - R - H ---> HO - R - R - H + H2O
Caused by enzyme polymerase.
What are polymer's made of and what types of polymers are there?
Dimer = 2 monomers
How are macromolecules broken down?
Hydration synthesis and enzymes.
HO - R - R - H + H2O -----> HO - R - H + HO - R - H
carbon hexagon with one oxygen in place of a carbon
H and OH connected to every carbon except one
Monomer's connected with O
Function of disaccharides, examples of disaccharides
Sucrose, lactose, maltose
Broken down by hydrolytic enzymes for quick energy
Examples and functions of carbohydrate polysaccharides
Starch - energy storage for plants
Glycogen - energy storage for animals in the liver
Cellulose (fiber) - structure for plant cells
Which carbohydrate polysaccharides can be broken down by hydrolytic enzymes?
starch and glycogen
Carbon in center:
Amino group on one side H N H
Carboxyl (acid) group on one side O C OH
H on one side
R on one side
How many different R groups and amino acids are there?
How can you tell if an amino acid is charged?
If there is a + or a - in the R group
How can you tell if an amino acid is hydrophilic?
If the molecule is charged
If the molecule has a polar covalent bond OH SH NH (H2O soluble)
How can you tell if an amino acid is hydrophobic?
Does not have a polar covalent bond of OH SH NH
What are the bonds between amino acids, and what are many amino acids called?
What is a functional protein?
A folded up polypeptide
What are the four levels of protein structure?
What is a protein primary structure?
The linear sequence of amino acids
What is a protein secondary structure and what are the types?
Local folding of the linear sequence of amino acids
Alpha helix bonding: swirly
Beta Pleated sheet: folding in half, zig zag
What is a protein tertiary structure and how does it form?
Held together by hydrogen, ionic, and hydrophobic interactions
Hydrophilic amino acids in outside
Hydrophobic amino acids on inside
Soluble protein with hydrophilic amino acids on outside
hydrophobic amino acids on inside
What is a protein quaternary structure, what are they composed of, and how are they held together?
When two polypeptides are combined
Composed of alpha and beta chains (secondary structure)
Iron hemes hold them together
Characteristics of enzymes and how they work
Enzymes speed of rates of reactions
1. Attach to substrate
2. Break the bond of the substrate
3. Detach from the substrate
When do enzymes not work?
When denaturation happens
Temperature and pH are off
pH scale in brief
0 acidic high in H+ concentration
14 basic high in OH- concentration
Growth, Uses vitamins, cell Membranes, Insulation, Energy soruce, Regulatory function
What are the 3 types of lipids?
Sterols (steroids), Fats and oils, Phospholipids
Lipid sterol structure and function
Four rings attached side to side
Hormone - estrogen, testosterone, cortisol
Membrane structure - cholesterol
What is an apolipoprotein and what is its function?
Cholesterol is hydrophobic
A ring of phospholipids
Triglycerides in the middle
Cholesterol in between the phospholipids
Moves cholesterol throughout the blood stream
What are the two types of lipoproteins and how do they differ?
Low density lipoprotein (LDL) - lazy=bad, bad cholesterol, makes plaque in arteries
High density lipoprotein (HDL) - happy=good, good cholesterol, can offset LDL
Fats and Oils: Triglyceride (fat) structure
Glycerol + 3 fatty acid hydrocarbon tails, all hydrophobic
H O HHHHHHHHH
Fatty acid chains are connected to glycerol by dehydration synthesis
Saturated and Unsaturated fats
Saturated - no double bond, packed tightly, solid, increase HDL and LDL
Unsaturated - one double bond, not tight, liquid, better for you
Polyunsaturated - more than one double bond, even better for you
Trans and cis fats, hydrogenation, partial hydrogenation
To get trans: add hydrogen to vegetable oil through hydrogenation
Adding hydrogen eliminated double bonds making the molecule more dense and solid
Partial hydrogenation changes some cis to trans
Trans: hydrogen on opposite sides
Cis: hydrogen on same side
component of cell membranes
hydrophilic phosphate head
hydrophobic 2 fatty acid tail
glycerol in middle
amphipathic - both hydrophilic and hydrophobic
Types of phospholipid forms
Micelle - A ball of phospholipid that occurs in water
Lipoprotein complex - Carries around cholesterol
Phospholipid bilayer (liposome) - plasma membrane
Functions of the plasma membrane
regulates what enters and leaves the cell, selectively permeable
maintains shape of cell
controls interactions between cells
Characteristic of plasma membrane
Phosphate and some proteins move fluidly
More fluid = more permeable
Effects on temperature, saturation of hydrocarbon tails, length of hydrocarbon tails, and cholesterol on permeability
Temperature: Temp goes up, fluidity/permeability goes up
Saturation of hydrocarbon tails: more saturated, less fluid/permeable, more unsaturated, more fluid/permeable
Length of hydrocarbon tails: longer tail --> stronger hydrophobic interactions, less fluid/permeable