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D - an experiment focusses on some one or two separate components of a process (=analysisof parts) and theory is derived by assembling several different, yet consistent experimentaloutcomes into a general principle that explains the overall process.
C- Although any of these choices might or even can occur, the most likely is that if onedissolves the lipids in the membranes the result will be the loss of the cell limiting componentand the contents will leak out.
FALSE - H bonds and not covalent bonds are what hold the two strands of the helix.
TRUE - A single double helix represents all the DNA that is present in a single chromatid.No standard chromosome contains only a single unpaired helix.
C-many different sequences are known to result in proteins with enzyme activity, but thisis not the same as stating that "any" sequence is likely to be, for example a string of alanines:ala-ala-....ala high unlikely to be an enzyme.
B-Guanine forms H bonds to Cytosines across the core of the helix and vice versa allCytosines for H bonds to Guanines.
E-the process of making of a protein from the sequence in the mRNA is termed translation,b/c the sequence of nucleotides is 'translated' into a sequence of amino acids.
A-heat breaks the double bonds thereby allowing each resulting single strand to be atemplate for another round of DNA replication.
C-Even if unsure about the total sequence, the separation of chromatids is the final step (3)and replication (2) has to be the first step. C is the only choice consistent with these two eventtimes.
C-is the better choice because in the end words need to be spatially separated and possiblytranslated into a specific language. D- might be thought of as a choice but that analogy wouldbe more appropriate for a statement of "DNA is to phenotype"
DNA is to genotype as
a) mitochondria are to chloroplasts
b) cytoplasmic membrane is to nuclear membrane
c) letters are to words.
d) notes are to music
e) enzymes are to metabolism
TRUE - this is because the gene for "calico" is on the X chromosome and in all mammalsone of the X chromosomes is inactivated early in development.
TRUE - the Species Concept basically states that if one group or type cannot mate andproduce offspring with another group then it is reproductively isolated and constitutes a separatespecies.
FALSE - Isolated populations can change over time through MUTATION even ifgeographically isolated from any possible migratory individuals.
D-opposite of "panmictic" would be assortive or selective. In a panmitic population all typescan mate and produce progeny with all other types.
D-the offspring themselves need to be capable of producing progeny. In the end, the mostfit are those that leave the largest number of alleles for subsequent generations, not just simplythe number of progeny of the next (example: the progeny could be sterile).
A-simply because the population has a blood group genes and all of these types are passedon by the population to the next generation.
D-Transgenic is the proper adjective for --- organism. The choice does not require anadjective for the DNA itself.
A-"syn" means together and "teny" refers to string or ribbon and therefore refers to genesthat are together on the same chromosome.
FALSE - in evolutionary context, fittest refers to those that are most reproductively capable.
C-the reproductive capability of the offspring is the key to natural selection
FALSE - seed dispersal is associated with the modification of the plant ovarian tissueoutside of the seed plus endosperm. This can range from structures that affect dispersal by thewind to the fruit of surrounding the endosperm and embryo.
FALSE- there are no photoreceptors at the blind spot - the site where the optic nerve leavesthe retina. The fovea is the location where there is the greatest concentration of photoreceptorcells.
TRUE- at some point in evolution there was a 180 twist in the animal body plan (puttingthe stomach (ventral) side now to the back (dorsal) side )and is reflected both in embryology aswell the right side vs left side regionalizations in the brain.
TRUE- basically Koch establishes that disease is caused by organisms separate from thehost. This development lead to the search for disease causing organisms rather than searchingwithin the affected species for a biological cause.
C-key is "sends" & "distance" . The other terms are all relevant to a neuron but not partof the axon transmission.
B-all protists can be propagated as single cells and all protists are eukaryotes. Some areseparately and individually marine, nonparasitic, and photosynthetic.
D-The seed is the innermost part of these fruits. The biomass of the fruit is not derivedfrom any of the cells resulting from the fertilization.
E-the huge variety of plants that are now present are all members of the angiospermcategory.
C-it is the unique morphology of sensory neurons (compare retinal cells to pressure cells)that mechanically and/or physically allows some aspect of the environment to be converted intoa sensory input signal.
True The "plasm" refers to the fact that the DNA is in the cytoplasm and the "id" is the ending for chromosome material, such as chromat+id
A small, circular replicating segment of DNA [in bacteria] is termed a 'plasmid'.
True "karyo " refers to the nucleus and a way of classify the nucleus and the simplest would be the number and lengths of the different chromosomes
The classification of the chromosome types and numbers for a single individual of a species is termed its 'karyotype'.
True - perhaps one might think that "ancient" is older than 4 billion years but in practical sense "ancient" species would probably better thought of as sometime after the Cambrian.
Most ancient fossils have biological forms that can not be recognized as even remotely similar to the forms of present organisms.
A species is a group of individuals capable of interbreeding (assumed: at appropriate ages, fitness, and environmental conditions, etc ).
False - for one appearances can be repeated (e.g marsupial wolf) and most important is the ability to mate, when male female appearances are quite different, such as between the peacock and the peahen
Membership in a species only requires that an individual has a approximate morphology and appearance which is typical of that species.
True By definition allelic differences must be due to differences in the DNA and one or more methods could demonstrate these differences.
An allelic difference between two strains [same species] could be revealed by a combined use of restriction enzymes and PCR amplification.
False Etymology: hydro+lysis implies addition of water will result in lysis or breakage. So addition of water as in the question must be false.
The term hydrolysis refers to the process of removing water from a compound.
False - While electrons can rearrange their geometric configuration yet in all cases the number of positions is strictly determined by grecian topologies, but also working in all dimensions. 4 would form a tetrahedron and not a square, 3 can only for a triangle b/c one covert into 3 dimensions in
4 electrons in Carbon atom can rearrange to form a shape similar to a square.
True With these 4 elements one is able to synthesize: water, sugar, amino acids, fatty acids and lipids, purines and pyrimidines (for DNA) and therefore to make all the major components of a cell.
The common chemical elements found in most amino acids are Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen.
True The correctness of an hypothesis is only established when any number of experiments cannot disprove it. A good hypothesis must a) be subject to experimental verification and b) have the potential to be shown to be wrong.
An hypothesis may be either true or false and therefore requires an appropriately designed experiment to test its validity.
True A catalyst is a substance which enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a lower temperature. There are catalysts that are not enzymes (e.g. catalytic converter in ones car muffler) but there are no enzymes (specified by genes) that are not composed of amino acids.
An enzyme is a catalyst composed of amino acids.
Pasteur's experiments essentially established that living systems represent the grand total of multiple chemical processes.
When a neutral atom loses a single electron the resulting charge is now +1.
False This requires that one know that the protons are in the innermost site of a an atom and that in general it is difficult to extract pure protons from an element (other than H) unless one is using some sort of "atom smasher".
The component of an atom that makes contact with other atoms is the proton.
Kidney excretory functions are controlled by specific nerves that control the resorption of water.
Viruses have proteins instead of DNA for the hereditary material.
False Recall that myelination is the coating by another cell around an axon leaving gaps or nodes. Nerve depolarizations jump from node to node (called saltatory) and therefore different from what would be considered continuous.
Continuous conduction describes impulses in a myelinated neuron.
All animals are classified as vertebrates.
True As with many chemical features and properties, organisms from time to time take advantage of a natural phenomenon of nature (e.g. surface tension)
The surface tension property of water is a property used by plants for transport of nutrients.
False Protists are single cells and nerves/neurons are single cells, one could not be a Protist without being a multicellular animal. Protists move by cilia and flagellae and by slower rearrangements of the intracellular cytoskeletal architecture .
Protists have nerves that coordinate muscular contractions.
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