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Pertaining to the heredity or chromosomal make-up of an organism dictated by allelic behavior and the processes of DNA replication
cross between two different species
the likelihood that a future event will occur
The combination of alleles inherited from parents. The combinations are:
Homozygous dominant: TT
Homozygous Recessive: tt
An array of the chromosomes found in an individual’s cells at metaphase of mitosis and arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size
One of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
Any chromosome that is not directly involved in sex determination
When there are two dominant alleles that will show a trait between (mixed) in the heterozygous form.
White flower + Red flower= Pink flower
When there are two dominant alleles and they are both expressed in the heterozygous genotype.
Example: Blood types are codominant.
Type A= IAIA or IAi
Type B = IBIB or IBi
Type AB = IAIB
trait with more than two alleles
A technology in which the genome of a living cell is modified for medical or industrial use
DNA molecules that are artificially created by combining DNA from different sources
bacterial enzymes that reconize and bind to specific short substances of DNA, then cut the DNA between specific nucleotides within the enzymes
(g and c)
Any agent, such as a plasmid or a virus, that can incorporate foreign DNA and transfer that DNA from one organism to another
is a substance that is prepared from killed or weakened disease-causing agents, including certain bacteria
The process of discovering and recording the pattern of bands that results when an individual’s DNA fragments are separated
-wanted to prepare a vaccine for pneumonia
-worked with two types of pneumonia
~1st- capsule composed of polysaccharideshelps make mircroorganism virulent, smooth-edged (S)
~2nd- lacks polysaccharide capsule (not virulent) rough edged (R)
-heat-killed S did not kill mouse
-heat killed S + R bacteria killed mouse
Concl:discovered bacteria went through transformation
The transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from on e organism to another
virus that infects bacteria
-grew the bacteriophage T2 with E. coli with radioactive sulfur (35S)
-and with radioactive phosphorus (32P)
-phages were used to infect E. Coli
-radioactive elements can be followed or traced
-32P label had most of the bacterial cells
-DNA is the molecule that stores genetic information in living cells
subunits that make up DNA
made of phosphate group, sugar, and nitrogen
Key componenent of DNA nucleotides.
A ribose sugar with one oxygen missing.
-each organism had equal amounts of adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine
showed T, G, and C varied between each other
-used X-ray diffraction to produce an image
-could analyze the complex patterns
-determined DNA was a double helix
open double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link complementary nitrogen bases between two strands
is a nucleic acid-a molecule made of nucleotides linked together
Differs from DNA- single strand, 5-carbon ribose
A nucleic acid principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins.
Process where the genetic info in mRNA is decoded by the ribosome (R-RNA) to make a sequence of amino acids called a polypeptide or protein.
A set of three adjacent nucleotides on mRNA that corresponds to the anticodon of tRNA. There are 64 different codons that code for amino acids, start or stop.
group of genes that code for enzymes involved in the same function, their promoter site, and the operater that controls them all function together as this
group of genes or segment of DNA that functions as a single transcription unit
long segments of nucleotides that have no coding information
a single nucleotide changes
(ex: insertion, deletion..)
a mutation in DNA or RNA involving a change in one nucleotide base
(either RNA or DNA)
the life cycle of the cell.
Consists of interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis.
Copying the genetic info from DNA into a complementary strand of M-RNA. This happens in the nucleus.
A scientist who studies fossils.
A group of same-species organisms living in the same geographical vicinity that are genetically capable of interbreeding
A group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area and interbreed.
The part of the flowering plant that contains the pollen sacs where grains form.
Part of a sea, lake, or river that is closest to the shore.
abiotic factor - an environmental factor that is not associated with the activities of living organisms
away from; out from
Abandon- leave behind, relinquish
AEROBIC : living, active, or occurring only in the presence of oxygen.
ANTEBELLUM : existing before a war; especially: existing before the American Civil War
antibiotic: a substance that can inhibit the growth of or kill some microorganisms
Permeable rock that contains groundwater
An anthropologist who studies anciant people and their culture.
forms names of enzymes.
An enzyme that catalyzes (breaks down) lactose into glucose and galactose.
an organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms
binary fissiona form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
biogeochemical cycle the circulation of substances through living organisms from or to the environment
chlorophyll a green pigment that is present in most plant cells, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form carbohydrates
chromatid one of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis
cyanobacteria a bacterium that can carry out photosynthesis, such as a blue-green alga
dermis the layer of skin below the epidermis
A book in which a person writes daily.
ecosystem a community of organisms and their abiotic environment
ectoderm the outermost of the three germ layers of an embryo that develops into the epidermis and epidermal tissues, the nervous system, external sense organs, and the mucous membranes lining the mouth and anus
out of; away from
extensora muscle that extends a joint
substratea part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
Not originating from Earth. Beyond Earth.
gastrovascular cavity a cavity that serves both digestive and circulatory purposes in some cnidarians
gymnosperma woody vascular seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit
The Earth is divided in half by the Prime Meridian, and those two halves are called hemispheres.
heterozygous describes an individual that has two different alleles for a trait
homeostasisthe maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment; a constant internal state that is maintained in a changing environment by continually making adjustments to the internal and external environment
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis
hydrostatic skeletonin many invertebrates, the cavity that is filled with water and that has a support function
above; beyond; over
hypertonicdescribes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
below; under; less
hypotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell
interneuron a neuron located between the afferent neuron and the final neuron in a neural chain
macrophagean immune system cell that engulfs pathogens and other materials
light microscope a microscope that uses a beam of visible light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object
Someone who is new to a religion or skill.
ovaryin the female reproductive system of animals, an organ that produces eggs; in flowering plants, the lower part of a pistil that produces eggs in ovules
osteocytea bone cell
oviparousdescribes organisms that produce eggs that develope and hatch outside the body of the mother
Someone who commutes by walking, not driving.
pedigreea diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
chlorophylla green pigment that is present in most plant cells, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form carbohydrates
pseudopodium a retractable, temporary cytoplasmic extension that functions in food ingestion and movement in certain ameboid cells
pulmonary veinthe vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
A large mammal characterized by the horn protruding from its nose.
Any class of sugar that cannot be hydrolyzed to form a simpler sugar.
The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, esp. as maintained by physiological processes.
far off; distant
teleosta group of ray-finned fishes that have a caudal fin, scales, and a swim bladder; the largest group of bony fishes
toxina substance that is produced by one organism and that is poisonous to other organisms
Single celled, microscopic animals.
A simple sugar most commonly having 5 or 6 carbon atoms present which cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler sugars.
Examples: Fructose, Glucose and Ribose
A sugar formed from two monosaccharides that are joined by a glycoside linkage.
Examles: sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose, cellubiose.
Newly formed substances from reactions.
A measure of output from a production process, per unit of input.
The pigment in plants which absorbs light which creates energy for photosynthesis
System- couples electron transfer between an electron donor and an electron acceptor to the transfer of protons across a membrane.
The length of a single cycle of a wave (crest-to-crest)
A substance that speeds up the time period needed for a chemical reaction to occur, without actually being consumed or changed.
An enzyme is an example of a protein catalist.
The release of energy from glucose or another organic
substrate in the presence of oxygen.
Form of respiration using electron acceptors other
The process of deriving energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, and using an electron acceptor, which is usually an organic compound.
What is the dependent variable?
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into cellular energy and the metabolic byproduct lactate.
What is a provirus?
A lysogenic virus injects its nucleic acid into a host cell, the provirus inserts itself into the host cells DNA, the cell divides, the provirus leaves the chromosome, viral nucleic acid and proteins are made, then the cell breaks open releasing viruses.
Transport tissue in plants which transports water throughout the plant.
The supporting and water-conducting tissue of vascular plants, consisting primarily of tracheids and vessels; woody tissue.
Living transport tissue in plants which carries nutrients such as glucose and sugar to all parts of the plant.
In vascular plants, the tissue that conducts food such as sugars, amino acids, and mineral nutrients.
A highly organized, tiny structures with membranes. The smallest unit of life.
Liquid inside chloroplasts where the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis take place.
The movement of air out of the bronchial tubes,
through the airways, to the external environment during breathing.
A metabolic pathway that uses energy released by
the oxidation of nutrients to produce ATP.
The movement of ions across a selectively-permeable membrane
down their electrochemical gradient.
Located in the ribosome, decodes mRNA into amino acids (R-RNA = Ribosome) Rinosomes are made up of RNA and proteins.
shape describing structure with two matching helixes intertwined around a common axis.
DNA strand that is replicated discontinuously using Okazaki fragments
segment of DNA where the repressor binds to
site in DNA molecule at which RNA polymerase and transcription factors bind to initiate transcription
act of repeating genetic material
suppressor genes- gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer
an allele that is masked by another allele
when both alleles for a trait are visible
Law of Dominance
the fact that a dominant allele will mask a recessive allele
Law of Segregation
the fact that alleles will segregate and recombine in gamete formation
Law of Independent Assortment
the fact that traits will segregate and recombine independently of each other in gamete formation
determining types of inheritance based on family history
a cross between two traits that yields a medium between two alleles
cross of a homozygous recessive and an unknown genotype used to determine the genotype
A research technique used to separate fragments of DNA according to size.
The failure of a pair of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis.
An abnormal human phenotype, including mental retardation, due to a trisomy of chromosome 2l; more common in babies born to older mothers.
An abnormal human male phenotype involving an extra X chromosome (XXY).
Is a disease in which an entire X chromosome of a female is absent, leaving her with only one X chromosome.
An autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which the HEXA gene on chromosome 15 has a mutation, It causes a relentless deterioration of mental and physical abilities that commences around six months of age and usually results in death by the age of four
A human metabolic disease caused by a mutation in a gene coding for a phenylalanine processing enzyme (phenylalanine hydroxylase), which leads to accumulation of phenylalanine and mental retardation if not treated; inherited as an autosomal recessive phenotype.
An organism into which cloned genetic material has been transferred
A circular DNA molecule that is usually found in bacteria and that can replicate independent of the main chromosome
An enzyme that destroys foreign DNA molecules by cutting them at specific sites
A nucleotide sequence—composed typically of 4, 6, or 8 nucleotides--that is recognized by a restriction nuclease.
A set of cloned fragments representing the entire genome of an organism
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) are variations in DNA fragment banding patterns of DNA from different individuals of a species. They occur due to the presence of a restriction enzyme cleavage site at one place in the genome in one individual and the absence of that specific site in another individual.
The correction of a genetic deficiency in a cell by the addition of new DNA and its insertion into the genome.
the replacement of a defective genetic defective gene with a normal version
A structure in an organism that is reduced in size and have no current function, and may have been complete and functional in the organism’s ancestors.
Examples: snake hip bones, blind cave salimander eyes, human appendix
Non-examples: Penguin wings... Reduced but modified for another function.
Anatomical structures that share a common ancestry. Example: Whale fliper, bat wing and human hand.
The trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, preserved in sedimentary rock.
A remnant or cast of an organism that contributes to the overall understanding of evolution and may be utilized to recognize specific features and functions of the organism to which the evidence belongs
The study of the geographic distribution of organisms.
The change in the characteristics of a population over time.
Two or more species having a close ecological relationship evolve together such that one species adapt to the changes of the other, thereby affecting each other's evolution.
The process by which individuals that have favorable variations and are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do.
The process of becoming adapted to an environment.
A model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity.
A model of evolution in which short periods of drastic change in species including mass extinctions and rapid speciation are separated by long periods of little or no change.
Structures of different species having similar or corresponding function but not from the same evolutionary origin.
The process by which unrelated species become more similar as they adapt to the same kind of environment. Example: whales and fish
The development of many different forms from an originally homogeneous group of organisms as they fill different ecological niches. Example; Galapagos finches and tortises.
The process by which an interbreeding population or species diverges into two or more descendant species, resulting in once similar or related species to become more and more dissimilar.
The total number of genes of every individual in an interbreeding population.
The average number of occurrences of a particular event in a large number of repeated trials.
A modification in structure, form or function in an organism, deviating from other organisms of the same species or group.
The frequency of an allele relative to that of other alleles of the same gene in a population.
A moving or spreading apart or in different directions. In evolutionary terms it is two geneticly separated populations that evolve to different environmental conditions. In time speciation can occur.
The formation of new species as a result of evolution by natural selection.
A group somewhat less distinct than species usually are, but based on characters more important than those which characterize ordinary varieties; often, a geographical variety or race.
The expanse of a population determining the amount of space in the environment the species occupies
The expanse of a population dependent on the number of organisms within the population which determine the amount of space and resources available to the certain population
The reproductive patterns of organisms in which a large number of offspring are produced independent of density limitations in the environment. Offspring receive little parental care, reproduce quickly and have limited life-spans
The reproductive patterns of organisms in which a small number of offspring are produced; such organisms receive limited parental care and investment as they maintain long life spans and successful reproduction
Characterized by having rapid development, and a high reproductive rate.
Low fecundity, low mortality, and a longer lives
The formula dictating the genetic stability of a population based on unchanging allelic frequencies within a selected gene pool
Growth of a population marked by steady and uninhibited expansion due to environmental stability, reproductive success, and the removal of limiting factors
Occurs when the growth rate of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value.
The process in which genetic information is manifested between distinct populations through reproductive contact, thus altering the allelic frequencies of the studied population
Selective sexual reproduction facilitated by the presence of secondary sexual characteristics which are manifested throughout the population’s gene pool through reproductive success, thus altering allelic frequencies
The process in which the allelic frequencies are altered in a new, smaller population distinct from that of the parental population; this can occur through separation of a population through a catastrophic event or the establishment of a new special group
A type of natural selection which favors one genetic extremity over the other, rather than an intermediate between the two
A type of natural selection in which the intermediate of two distinct genetic phenotypes is favored
A curve representing exponential growth in which population growth is steadied and expansive
A curve representing logistic growth in which a population experiences a period of expansion, yet slows due to density-dependent factors
An instance in a population in which the frequency of a selected allele is unchanging
The value associated with the chance of mutation through generations of an organism’s lineage
The overall reproductive contribution of an organism to the population’s genetic composition
A phylum of bacteria that obtains it’s energy from photosynthesis
Most common classification for bacteria ; they are heterotrophic, autotrophic, and chemotrophic
Single celled microorganisms with no nucleus or any other membrane bound organelles
The idea that eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells based on the mutualistic relationship between the two organisms
The death of the last individual in a species
The death of several species in an environment because of natural disaster or drastic environmental change
The movement of the Earth’s crust as a result of the properties of plate tectonics
The adaptation of a cell to do a particular job
A relationship between two organisms in which both organisms benefit
A class of protein found in mitochondria that transport electrons or protons
Well-lit, open surface waters in a lake, away from the shore.
Very cold and ordinary zone such as an ocean or lake, located below the range of effective light penetration.
Drifting organisms including animals, plants, archaea, or bacteria that inhabit the palegic zone of bodies of water.
Treeless area between the ice cap and the treeline of Arctic regions having permanently frozen subsoil (Permafrost) and supporting low-growing plants.
A forest located in the Earth’s far northern regions, consisting mainly of cone-bearing evergreens, such as firs, pines, and spruces, and some deciduous trees, such as larches, birches, and aspens.
Flat grassland of tropical or subtropical regions.
Dry, often sandy region of little rainfall, extreme temperatures, and sparse vegetation.
Air plants that grow on other plants.
Plants that grow on water or in very moist condidtions.
Dense evergreen forest with an annual rainfall of at least 406 cm, often located in tropical regions.
Highly seasonal, warm summers and cold winters.
Areas where vegetation is dominated by grasses and non-woody plants.
Naturally occurring water on the Earth’s surface.
A partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more streams flowing into it.
Covers ¾’s of the Earth’s surface.
A chemical procedure for determine the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperatures over a specific amount of time.
The rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy.
The rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy.
The production of organic compounds from the atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily through photosynthesis
An autotrophic organism capable of producing complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules through the process of photosynthesis (using light energy) or through chemosynthesis (using chemical energy).
An organism that generally obtains food by feeding on other organisms or organic matter due to lack of the ability to manufacture own food from inorganic sources; a heterotroph
A position in a food chain or Ecological Pyramid occupied by a group of organisms with similar feeding mode
Food webs that represent predator-prey relationships between species within an ecosystem or habitat.
Interconnecting food chains in an ecological community
Organisms that eat plants, or vegetarians
Organisms that eat purely meat
Organisms (like most of us!) that eat both plants and animals
Organisms that eat decomposing organic matter
break down dead plants and animals.
A graphical representation of the trophic levels by which incoming solar energy is transferred
A renewable resource and is the biological matter from living, or recently living organisms.
Is simply the increase in concentration of a substance
The transfer of energy from one body to another
The traveling of long distances in search of a new habitat
Materials that are limited and not in an infinite quantity
A natural resource that cannot be reproduced
A natural resource that is replaced by natural processes and if replenished with the passage of time.
A wet underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.
The maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain.
A biological environment consisting of all the organisms in a particular area as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment.
An ecological or environmental area that is inhabitated by a particular species of animal or plant.
An S-shaped curve that can be used to model functions that increase gradually.
Dependent factor- a factor whose effects on the size or growth of population vary with the population density.
Independent factor- A factor that affects both the birth rate or mortality rate of a population in ways that are independent of the population density
A pathway by which a chemical element moves through both biotic and abiotic compartments of Eath.
Water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Water loss through the leaves of a plant
The process by which plants release water vapor into the air through the stomata or other organisms.
The nitrogen process by which nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted into ammonia
The passing of gaseous nutrients to the blood in humans and animals.
A process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds using sunlight
Like burning, is the sequence of exothermic chemical reactions.
The process of weathering and transport of solids in the natural environment
The conversion of nutrient into the fluid or solid substances of the body by the process of digestion and absorption
Mineralization is the conversion of organic nitrogen from bacteria with the remains back into ammonium.
The biological oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrates into nitrates.
Microbially facilitated process of nitrate reduction that may produce more molecular nitrogen.
Degradation of land in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas
Removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is later converted into nonforest use
Aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment
Fuels formed by natural processes
Increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near-surface air and oceans
Deterioration of the ozone layer due to the release of pollutions on Earth.
Process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surfave is absorbed by atmospheric gases
Process in which a society or country transforms itself from a primary agriculture society to one based on manufacturing goods and services
The nitrogen and carbon cycles.
Biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere
Process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms.
Is a woody vascular seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit.
The outer covering of a plant
In plants it is the primary tissue in the epidermis. In animals it is the outermost portion of an organ.
The protective layer of a cell that covers the tip of the root.
The male reproductive structure of a flower that produces pollen and consists of an anther at the tip of a filament.
The tissue that is located in the center of the stem of most vascular plants and can be used for storage.
The female reproductive part of a flower that produces seeds and consists of an ovary, style, and stigma.
The movement of all or part of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light or heat.
The outer layer of bark of any woody plant.
An angiosperm that has two cotyledons, net venation, and flower parts in groups of 4 or 5; a dicotyledonous plant.
The transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the tip of the female reproductive structure of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule of gymnosperms.
The growing region at the tips of stems and roots in plants.
Plants that produce seeds that have only one cotyledon.
The many openings in a leaf or stem of a plant that enable gas exchange to occur.
A type of plant tissue other than vascular tissue that makes up much of the inside of a plant.
An extension of the epidermis of a root that increases the root surface area for absorption.
A root system made up of many threadlike members of more or less equal length.
In alteration of generations, it is the phase at which gametes are formed and the haploid individual that produces gametes.
A flowering plant that produces seeds within a fruit.
The tissue between epidermal layers; where photosynthesis occurs.
Causes the seed to sprout or grow.
A conducting tube that is made up of sieve tube members stacked end to end in the phloem.
The receptive apex of the pistil of a flower, on which pollen is deposited at pollination; female.
Is a strand of conducting tissue that contains both xylem and phloem.
A triploid tissue that develops in the seeds of angiosperms and provides food for a developing embryo.
The main root of a plant, usually stouter than the lateral roots and growing straight downward from the stem.
A waxy or fatty and watertight layer on the external wall of epidermis cells.
The seed pods of plants.
In plants and algae that have alternation of generations and the diploid individual or generation that produce haploid spores.
roots growing from a location other than the underground, descending portion of the axis of a plant, as from a stem or leaf.
Small chemical messengers in the body; produced by the endocrine system.