variety of living organisms and the variety of ecosystems they form
How much of precriptions are derived from living organisms?
study of the diversity of porganisms and their evolutionary relationships
the science of naming, decribing and classifying organisms synonym for classification: system has to reflect phylogeny (evolutionary history of a group)
arranging organisms into groups based on similarities that reflect evolitionary relationships
Carolus Linnaeus when and what did he do
(18th century) grouped orgs based on mainly structural similarities. and came up with binomial nomenclature Swedish botanist - father of moderm classification
each species had a lengthy descriptive name, sometimes consisting of 10 or more latin words.
binomial system of nomenclature
each species is assigned a specific two-part name. where the first part is the genus and the second is the specific epithet usually greek or latin and the genus is always capitalized.
(pl taxa) formal unit of classification (ex. kingdom protista, algae is not)
natural vs. artificial classification
art- no evolution- just a way to keep things straight natural-
hierarchy of classification
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus (pl. genera), species: "Kinky People Come Over For Great Sex"
basic unit of classification; kind of organism ii. developed binomial system of nomenclature, where first part designates the genus and the second part is the specific epithet
morphospecies – members of the same species share common morphologicall characteristics, they are partof same gene pool (similar)
some defined attribute ie a leg
leg long or short. measurements
similar because they were inherited from a common ancestor Similarity is based on evolutionary relationships. ex. tiktaalik- (forelimbs) - big freshwater fish 375 million yr ago- shows same humorous, alba, and radius
similar because they are used in similar ways ii. result from convergent evolution
bacteria, archaea, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia
in 1859, published “The Origin of Species By Natural Selection” i. collected massive scientific evidence supporting evolution ii. natural system of classification reflects evolutionary relationships to extent that they are understood iii. goal was to understand the Phyologeny of a group
What increased interest in systematic
. more interest in systematics as a result of new technology available to study it i. discovery of DNA, computers with algorithms, etc. b. also, as more biological extinctions of species occur, scientists desire to study them and know they existed
evolutionary biology! in 20's- went to New Guinea to study birds with tribes people. descriptions matched. decided species were real
A population or group of populations whose numbers have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring, but cannot successfully interbreed with members of other populations.” ii. concerns how reproduction (sexual) is fundamental to evolution
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