Evolutionary Trends; behavioral aspects Emphasis on learned behavior Single infant births Strong mother-infant bonds - core, most stable element in primate social groups = relationship between infants & mothers 4.) Increased period of infant dependency & juveniles 5.) Long interbirth intervals (IBI) - long generations - primates = slow down life history (development) 6.) Highly social - sociality and group living associated with money behavioral traits - example- grooming *functions: 1. hygiene 2. social- social bonds, reduces tension, appeasement - example- complex communication * visual, vocal, displays, tactile - complex social organization & diverse mating systems Primate & Human Evolution: The Fossils Cenozoic Era (65 mya- present) age of mammals the mammal advantage- could fill more niches because of warm blood, heterodonty, large brains Paleocene Epoch (65-55mya) First primate-like mammals = Pleasiadapids North America No PO (post-orbital) bar Claws Eocene Epoch (55-34 mya) First ?primates of modern aspect? (Simons, 1972) North America = Omomyids (tarsier-like) Europe = Adapid (lemur-like) Oligocene Epoch ( 34-22 mya) Anthropoid radiation Found in Africa & Asia Most knowledge of early anthropoids comes from: Fayum, Egypt (Elwyn Simons) * By 35 mya, Old World Monkeys & New World Monkeys were distinctly different?but how did New World Monkeys get to South America? Miocene Epoch (22-5 mya) ?Golden Age of Apes? Hominoid radiation in Africa, Asia, Europe Begin to see the origins of our ancestors Between 5 & 7 mya an African Ape speciated Exhibited traits that we call ?hominid? not ?hominoid? *Hominid- refers to all of our direct ancestors? our lineage * Hominoid- refers to all apes What distinguishes our lineage from other primates? A set of anatomical traits Early paleoanthropologists expected: large brains primitive teeth
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