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University of Arkansas - Fayetteville
Biology Test 4
Biology Test 4
University of Arkansas - Fayetteville
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Biology: Concepts & Connections with MasteringBiology® (6th Edition) (MasteringBiology, Non-Majors Series)
have a muscular foot and mantle
fold of tissue that may secrete a shell
3 types of molluscs
gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods
ex. snails and slugs. only group to live on land. largest group of mulluscs
ex. clams and oysters. opens like a door hinge. are sedentary.
ex. squids and octopus. very agile and have beak like jaws. largest of all invertabrates
type of annellid that has both male and female organs
type of annellid. paddle like appendages with spindles.
type of annellid. eats small invertabrates.
segmented animals with jointed appendages and exoskeloten.
type of anthropod that lives on land.
milipedes and centipedes
types of anthropods. milipedes eat plants while centipedes eat other prey
largest and most diverse group of anthropods
rapid transformation from larvae to adult. adult looks totally different than the larvae.
largest order of animals, aka coleopetra
spiny skinned, have endoskeleton and watervascular system (movement, feeding, gas exchange). radially symmetrical as adults and biolaterally symmetrical as embryos.
dorsal hollow nerve chord, and stiff notochord (pharyngeal slits and muscular post anal tail found in embryo)
fluid filled sack around the egg of an individual
vertabrates that lack hinged jaws and paired fins
type of joint humans have located in the jaw. temporomandibular joint is the specific type. also called TMJ which connects the termperal and mandable joint. has two movements- hinges and slides.
respiratory organ of most aquatic animals
examples of jawed vertabrates with gills and paired fins
sharks, rays, and lobe-finned fish
have a flexible skeleton and don't have a swim bladder (organ inside some organisms that holds gas)
flap of tissue which allows for gas exchange
muscular fins supported by bones, aka rod shaped bones
the first tetrapods with limbs allowing movement on land. lived a "double life" part in water, part on land. go through metamorphosis
amniotoes. terrestrial adaptions
absorb external heat from environment. endothermic animals are cold blooded
most diverse reptiles. may have been endothermic
feathered reptiles. developed feathers before they could fly. why? 1. courtship display, 2. feathers served as insulation
5 adaptions for flight
1. reduced weight
2. high metabolic rate
3. acute senses
4. powerful muscles
5. excellent circulations
3 mammilian groups
1. monotremes, ex. platapus.
2. marsupials, ex. kangaroo and are born premature
3. eutherians, are completely develop before birth
pouch that marsupials have
temporary organ present only during pregnancy. part fetus part mom. allows complete development of baby
sceientific study of the interactions of organisms with their environment
deals with another living organism
deals with another nonliving organism, ex. solar energy, water, temperature
all of earths ecosystems
rivalry between individuals or groups of animals for territory or resources
average and variations in weather in a region over a long period of time
uneven heating of earths surface
causes patterns of precipitation and prevailing winds which helps control the climate
ecosystem laregely determined by climate, usually classified according to predominant vegistation and characterized by organisms adapted to that environment
5 types of biomes
aquatic, dessert, forest- what arkansas is, grasslands, tundra
behavioral ecologists ask...
proximate questions- how a behavior occurs
ultimate questions- why behavior occurs
ability to reproduce
behavior is a result of
genes and environment
change in behavior resulting from experience
types of learning
habituation- loss of response after repeated exposure
spatial- associated with migration patterns
cognitive mapping- associated with mapping out an organisms territory
associative- includes trial and error
problem solving- ex. sodoku
any ways which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behavior. enahnce reproductive success.
types of mating behaviors
these are determined by needs of the offspring and certainty of paternity
process in which different species select sex partners. generally performed by males.
provides space and resources
aka signaling. 1 or more of sounds, scents, displays, or touches
a type of dispersion pattern. can either be clumped, uniformed, or randomm
set of actions having symbolic value
acting with intent to restrict freedom of other animals
ranking of individuals within a community.
ex. pecking order in birds
reduces individuals fitness and increases fitness of others in the population
altruistic behavior in individuals are more likely to help those who are blood relatives because it will increase the odds of gene transmission
act of searhing for food and provisions
2 types of foragers
1. generalists- eats anything
2. specialists- has a specific diet
optimal foraging theory. predicts that an animals feeding behavior will maximize energy gain and minimize risk.
number of individuals of species per unit of area or volume
3 types of survivorship curves
type 1. few offspring, max mortality (humans)
type 2. (squirrels)
type 3. many born, die easily/quickly (fish)
community is characterized by
1. species diversity
2. dominant species
4. trophic structure (feeding relationship)
species role in its ommunity, total use of abiotic and biotic resources
competitive exclusion principle
2 species cannot coexist with the same niche.
one will manifest dominance
one will change niche
relationship between prey and predator. some prey gain protection through mimicry
2 types of mimicry
batesian- palitable (edible) or harmless species mimics a harmful species
mullerian- unedible species copies another unpalitable species
exerts strong control of a community because of its niche. keeps community in balance
when one species changes and stimulates a change in another species and changes the first species (arms race)
catepillar and the plant example from class
plants (producers) are always at the bottom which are consumed by herbivores which are consumed by carnivores
global H2O cycle
precipitation, evaporation, transportation (water given off during photosynthesis)
biodiversity includes 3 issues
genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
threats to biodiversity
habitat destruction- single greatest cause!
green houses- trapping heat based on excess CO2.
aka naturalized species. organism not indigenous to a location that has been accidently or intentionally placed.
ex. bunny rabbits in australia
how to alter green house gasses
decrease CO2 produced, increase photosynthesis
measure of amount of CO2 emitted by activities
biodiversity hot spots
areas around the globe that must have more than 1500 species of vascular plants and lost more than 70% of original habitats
meets needs of the present without compromising needs of future generations
accumulated, knowledge, customs, beliefs, and arts and other human products that are socially transmitted. culture increases lifespan and life quality.
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