•Anthropologists suggest ______ fractures in antelope, baboons, and Australopithecus were caused by club attacks
•Suggests early hominids knew ______ was a vital organ
drilling holes in heads 2. Neolithic culture or 'new Stone Age' 3.9500 Bc in modern day Jericho
Aztecs and Incas participated in ________ also known as drilling holes in heads.
Healing proved that holes were made on the _______.
Possible explanations of trephination
1. tribal ritual; survivors have special power 2. treat headache, convulsions, mental disorders (release demons) 3. treat depressed skull fractures
Suggests ancient cultures may have linked head or _____ with _______ function.
Egyptian Medical Records ~ 2000 BC
1. Egyptians were the first to provide systematic medical records...how to treat head injuries.
1. Knowledgeable about wounds by spears and swords -An ailment which I will treat -An ailment with which I will contend -An ailment not to be treated
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus
1. Edwin Smith purchased it in 1862. 2. Translated in 1920 3. References to head injuries (treatment of head injury, changes in walking with head injury)....Suggests ancient cultures may have linked head or brain with mental function
4. One of the authors is thought to be Imhotep (father of egyptian medicine)...treatment for a split skull was sitting
•Egyptian medicine blended mythology and _______ with rationale ____________practices
________ was rubbed on the body of the afflicted. _______ was intended to make the body uninhabitable by demons
1. Excrement 2. Feces
Egyptian Preparation for Afterlife
Believed the heart recorded all the good and evil deeds in life. Liver, Lungs, Stomach, and Intestines were housed in canopic jars.
2. Brain was treated with indifference -It was removed through the noes with hooks and discarded(not needed for afterlife)
3.Heart considered too important to remove. (after death, gods weigh heart against a feather...if it is heavy with guilt and evil you get fed to the to the devourer, if it is free of sin, then you go to heaven
- Son of a physician and member of a physicians guild -Rejected the idea that seizures were due to gods or demons - Suggested that charlatans relied on mystical explanations of disease to cover up their ignorance
_________ a contemporary of Hippocrates who taught that matter was masde up of an infinite number of extremely minute units called _______
1. Democritus 2. atoms
________ suggested that atoms can differ in shape and that different shaped atoms accounted for different sensations
_______ and ________ believed there was a soul and that it existed in three parts
1. Intellect- associated with HEAD 2. Anger, fear, and courage- associated with the heart 3. Lust, Greed and Desire- associated with the gut and liver
Aristotle (greatest greek 'natural philosopher')
-Studied and dissected over 50 different species -believed that the heart was responsible for intellect
(was an idiot and believed that warmth was critical for sensation and the heart was warm while brain was cool and purpose of brain was to cool the blood)
Herophilus is the father of _________ (335-280 BC) and dissected hundreds of _________
1.Anatomy 2. cadavers
_____ was Greek, trained in Alexandria, and then served as gladiator surgeon in ____ and served court physician to four Roman emperors
_______ strongly believed that nothing should be believed except that __________
1.galen 2. experienced
__________ conducted dissections on many different species
______ law did not permit _________ (a word coined by Galen)
______ disagreed with Aristotle that the brain was a cooling mechanism. Concluded that the brain was the seat of _______
1.Galen 2. intellect
•By seeing that behavior is altered in cases of head trauma, Galen believed he proved that the ‘rational soul is lodged in the __________’
Galen however did not attribute specific function to specific parts of the brain.
•____________________ localization of function persisted through the Middle Ages
Ventricular localization consisted of three parts :
1. perception 2. cognition 3. memory
•But, cardiocentric view of mind remained popular
Leonardo Da Vinci -1472-1519
- Dissected 300 cadavers and made 1500 anatomical drawings. - All of this done in secrecy as autopsies were forbidden -between 1504 and 1507 he conducted a cattle ventricle experiment
•Vesalius provided with ample material for autopsy •First to see the ventricles in humans were not different in shape compared to other mammals •Noted over 200 errors by Galen … over 1000 years to compare Galen’s work to human brains •His teacher called him a madman, an ass, and said he should be,‘…punished, lest by his pestilent breath he poison the rest of Europe.’
_______ ________ First detailed attribution of functional contributions of individual brain parts
______ ________ ascribed memory to gray matter and __________ to white matter
1. Thomas Willis 2. Imagination
Thomas Willis attributed Sensation and movement to corpus ________ andVital and involuntary functions to _________
1. striatum 2. cerebellum
Mind and body are different is called ______ _______ by ____ ______
1. Cartesian Dualism 2. Rene Descartes
Rene Descartes said in humans, mind and body interact in the _____ ______
1. pineal gland
(no one really took this seroiusly but the dualism of mind/body was influential) -first functional account of brain mediating behavior
Rene Descartes believed that ______ behavior was mediated by the pineal gland (seat of rational thought and consciousness)
Involuntary behavior mediated by _________
stimulus to open ventricular valves to release animal spirits into nerves to stimulate muscle to a response
______ ________ work led to laws banning animal cruelty. He did live dissections on animals
1. Francois Magendie
noticed that dorsal roots were more sensation based and ventral were more related to movement.
_____ ______ found nerves in spinal cord as well like magendie and reported his findings to his brother.
1. Charles Bell
endless debate between magendie and bell..finally named bell and magendie law.
Meter long rod through Phineas Gage head led to loss of _____ inhibitions , leading to inappropriate behavior.
______ ________ believed mental functions were localized in the cortex. He is responsible for advancing the concept of cortical localization
1. Franz Gall
Who started Phrenology
bulging eyes and good memory example as well as patient who was destructive with above ear prominence.
for clinical cases they emphasized cases that supported their theories and discarded the rest.
____________ a French scientist, was a critic of Phrenology
Flourens was correct that cerebellum was for coordinated movement, medulla for basic life functions, but the _____ could not be divided into functional unit and he was wrong about this last aspect
• Gall did sloppy work but was correct in that there is ___________ of function within the cerebral cortex •Flourens used better methods but failed to identify cortical localization.Flourens was probably ‘blinded’ to the truth by his hatred for ________
1. localization 2. phrenology
______ proved localization of cortex by examining in post mortem the brain of a person with impaired speech
was able to convert a lot of skeptics of cortical localization
- actually discovered earlier by Bouillaud but he was a phrenologist
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