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used to look at one thin section of specimen to see inner structures.
electrons go through specimen- dark spot, electrons dont go through specimen-light spot.
many sections must be used if wantng to create a 3D structure.
Helps reveal viruses by locating molecules within a specimen by alternating an antibody to a gold particle.
specimen emits light in response to microscope.
if the molecule has not autoflouresence qualities naturally, antibodies can be attatched to make it glow.
"reporter proteins"- can also add proteins to make it glow at specific parts
computer scans back and forth and computes a 3D image.
there is not out of focus blur.
is able to focus on one specific part
discovered protist and bacteria and named them animolcules meaning little animal.
Published a paper and kept voucher specimen
Provides shape and protection; attaches to substrate/othercells; components=sticky wall layer (capsule) for protection and surfaceappendages (fimbria/fimbriae aka attachment pili/pilus)
DNA that is horizontally transferred into prokarytes is from surroundings and environment
-requires stress, often from dead cells
horizontal gene transfer that uses phages to carry prokaryotic genes from one host to another
"DNA is transmitted by virus"
organisms that cannot fix carbon and use organic carbon forgrowth
in the kindgom animilia but does not specify it.
- is ingestion , eat other organisms (live or dead) using a mouth
letting bacteria grow under lab conditions to find out whatorganism it is
scientists analyze the genomes of organisms recovereddirectly from the environment
are actinmycetes (make own antibiotics to protect themselves from other prokaryotes)
bacteria. blue green pigment
self suffecient, plant like (oxygen photosynthesis)
some filaments have nitrogen fixers.
symbiosis where both benefit-zooxanthellae live inside coral cells
use methane for energy and carbon. Anaerobic archaea/aerobicproteobacteria. Can convert toxic methane to salt and carbon dioxide
parasites absorb nutrients from a living host, whilesaprobes absorb nutrients from a dead host
arose independently from prokaryote flagella
3. Evidence of past symbiosis
- chloroplast cannot live independently
- chloroplast has small peptidoglycan wall
primary: symbiont is a prokaryote.
Secondary: symbiont is a eukaryote
prokaryotes: has no nucleus, single-celled, bacteria, and nomembrane bound organelles;
eukaryotes: have a nucleus and membrane boundorganelles, are animal and plant cells (only plants have cell wall);
protists: “thevery first” a eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus.
different pigments that absorb different wavelengths oflight. Carotenoids absorb red-yellow pigment
water transparency (secchi disk), chlorophyll concentration,and temperature increase
dino=whirl. They have 2 flagella. Photosyntheticdinoflagellate symbionts of coral=zooxanthellae. Red tides. Blooms.
stramen “straw” pile “hair”. Unicellular and multicellular.Autotrophs and heterotrophs. Consist of oomycetes, diatoms, and brown algae
type of oomycetes that are decomposers and heterotrophic.Responsible for great potato famine and sudden oak death
no flagella (evolutionary loss). Autotrophs and parasiteswith red pigment phycoerythrin (absorbs blue light- deep water). Agar from cellwall polysaccharides and are unicellular or filamentous
eukarya with modified mitochondria
- same accessory pigemtns as plants, chlorophyll and canateroids.
-several groups, many body forms
doing science regardless of field. Coming up with ahypothesis based on deducing predictions that may be experimentally tested
causal explanation of a phenomenon. Explanatory statementbased on natural causes. Must be testable.
what we should see if hypothesis is good. A guess about whatwill happen after the experiment is complete
circulates between mosquito vector hosts and thentransferred to humans and other animals through blood meals.
ecosystem that composes 55% of Illinois
how do birds migrate? Current function of characterizationof organisms determined from focused observations. Characters: morphological ,behavioral, ecological, physiological, molecular
taxon data matrix; 0=absent, 1=present
Historical approach; focused observations in field/lab basedon h-d thinking, comparative studies in field/lab, reconstruct pastprocesses/events from present patterns
similar communities and physical environments=biome.Ecosystem=communities and physical environment
all the ecosystems on Earth. Species not randomlydistributed. Similar ecosystems are grouped into biomes.
how many organisms we know about vs. how many are estimatedthat are actually out there
local group of organisms of the same species
1. Whichof these statements describe a function of plant vacuoles
a. they provide water pressure for cell elongation
b. Theyprovide air space for gas exchange
c. Theyconnect the cytoplasm of neighboring cells
d. Theyproduce cellulose microfibrils
e. Theydetermine the direction of cell expansion
cellular organizational level intermediate between cells andcomplete organisms
-level of biological organization
-group of similiar cells that share a common structure/function
causes of extinction
-habitat loss (agriculture, development)
-introduction of invasive species
-global climate change
-2 root causes
humanmicrobiome,NewGerm Theory article
genetic variation among individuals of a single species.Individuals make up populations and populations make up species
Descent with modification
different success in reproduction systems
-natural selection + modification
before drought= shorter billduring drought = longer bill because have to digdeeper for food.
the change in use of something (ex: cilia) over time. Stemsfrom use in common ancestors
every 2-5 years oak trees produce large amounts ofacorns. The key process to monitor inorder to predict the ecological chain reaction that can affect the level ofLyme disease from year to year.
one organism lives off of the another (usually harming it)
absorb nutrients from living host
1. Which of the following is true about plasmids?
A) they are the decendents of a free-living photosyntheticancestor
B) their uptake is termed transduction
C) they are an important source of horizontal gene transfer
D) they are transmitted by means of viruses
E) they are small linear pieces of DNA
2) How do heterocytes protect cyanobacteria from the oxygenproduced by photosynthesis?
A) filaments with heterocytes do not photosynthesize, theyjust fix nitrogen
B) they have thick walls to keep oxygen outside, away fromnitrogenase
C) photosynthesis takes place inside them, away fromnitrogen
D) they convert oxygen produced by photosynthesis tonitrogen
E) they provide a place for photosynthesis at some times& nitrogen fixation at different times
3. Which are the prokaryotes responsible for evolving manyantibiotics used by humans?
D) gram negative bacteria
4. Which of these true statementsdoes NOT PROVIDE EVIDENCE for the prokaryotic origin of chloroplasts?
A) Some DNA from chloroplasts hasbeen transfered to the host nucleus.
B) Modern eukaryotes may haveendosymbiotic phototrophs living inside of them.
C) Like cyanobacteria,chloroplasts divide by binary fission.
D) Inner membranes of prokaryotesand chloroplasts have similar enzymes.
E) Both prokaryotic and eukaryoticcells have similar protein synthesis systems.
5. Which group of eukaryotes is capable of growing atgreatest depth due to the accessory pigment phycoerythrin?
A) green algae
B) brown algae
D) red algae
6. Confidence in a hypothesis depends most on the:
A) number of different predictions repeatedly tested andsupported
B) extent to which it matches one’s opinion
C) number of times the same prediction is tested andsupported
D) reputation of the scientist who does the work
E) number of times the same prediction is verified
7. In the bird experiment testing the “geomagnetic field fororientation” hypothesis, the confoundingfactor that had to be included in designing the experiment was that:
A. the stars are the most important means of orientation
B. the sun is the less important means of orientation
C. the geomagnetic field is the most important means oforientation
D. the sun is the most important means of orientation
E. the stars are the less important means of orientation
8. The key processto monitor in order to predict the ecological chain reaction that can affectthe level of Lyme disease from year to year is:
B) spirochete bacterium life cycle
D) tick larval stage
9. The type of variation associated with among-populationgenetic biodiversity is:
A) ecosystem variation
B) geographic variation
C) sex-based variation
D) age-based variationE) individual variation
10. The biological species organizational level of thehierarchy of life is defined as:
A) groups of organisms with morphological similarity
B) groups of species in a particular area
C) the biosphere
D) the ecosphere
E) groups of interbreeding populations
The cells wall is a key feature in alll prokaryotic cells. it
-differs from eukaryotes
-contains peptidoglycan( polymer composed of modified sugars cross linked with polypeptides)
-if cell has a lot of peptidoglycan it is gram positive and stains dark violet
-is used for shape and protection
prokaryote is able to attatch to substrates of other prokaryotes because of capsule and fibri
falgella and taxis
the ability for a prokaryote to move towards or away from a stimulous, whether it is good of bad
random mutation (happens a lot because they divide so rapidly) and horizontal gene transfer
prokaryotes recieve genes from other prokaryotes whether they are dead or alive
20-50 minutes for one generation of E. Coli
-depending on conditions, the prokaryotes can adapt and if given enough nutrients/ right conditions they can reproduce very rapidly
can adapt to changing environment
-can also change their environment
considerably less DNA than eukaryotes
-minimal genome size, genes are tightly packed, many copies of small genome
-plasmids are small and circular
- bacteria and archaea cna put DNA into environment so cells can take it up.
energy source: light
carbon source:CO2 and other related compounds
energy source: inorganic chemicals
Carbon source: CO2
energy source: light
carbon source: organic compunds
energy source: organinc compounds
carbon source: organinc compounds
Prokaryotes, Oxygen and Metabolism.
must use O2 for cellular respiration and cannot grow without it
archaea that produce methane as a byproduct of their metabolism
are obligate anaerobes
methanontrophs- feed on methane
-anaerobic in archaea
-aerobic in proteobacteria
symbiont is a prokaryote
-2 chloroplast membrane
Eukaryote with modifies mitochondria
- complex unicells
- 2 types of movement
--- flagella swim forwards and twist
--- metaboli, they scrunch and move forward
ex. Euglena , found in farm ponds. red Caratenoid pigment
Eukaryotes with modified mitochondria
**2 ways they cool the earth 1. remove CO2 is they sink like plankton 2. reflect light which cools earth
sexual reproduction of chromosomes. having 1 set of chromosomes
has half the numver of chromosomes as diploid and only onecomplete set on chromosomes (n)
-result of meiosis
-only haploid cells are in us (eggs and sperm)
2 complete sets of chromosomes (2n)
-reproduce by mitosis making daughter cells that are exactreplicates-spores
fusion of two gametes to form one zygote. Also known assyngamy.
taxon history (taxonomy). Shows evolutionary trees. It showsthe evolutionary history of organisms and their characters.
Sister taxa at each resolved nodeFully reconstructed node has only 2 branches
b. Monophyleticand non-monophyletic clades
d. Theranking of clades
e. Thehistory of clades
phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the cladistics method
shared similarity due to convergent evolution, NOT commonancestor
homoplasous/analogous- similar form but are not derived from each other (arose separately)
the independent evolution of similar features in differentlineages
Ex: sugar glider and flying squirrel
-easy to interpret shared characteristics as homology butits no due to common ancestry but to adaptations.-have misinformation
formed or developed from something else
species or group of species closely related to, but notincluded within a taxon
a species or group of species from an evolutionary lineage that is known to have diverged before the lineage that contains the group of species being studied.
is the one you are working on.
-if same character is in ingroup and outgroup it isancestral
-if unique to ingroup, it is derived
2 step process
- random then directional
selects for those better adaptation to CURRENT environmental conditions that arose randomly
what effects a population/ what kills off certain traits
how well adapted an organism is for the environment that itlives in
stem+leaves; provides support and conducts water (above ground)
growing parts of plant; 1. apical=top or bottom=main shootor root. 2. Lateral bud associate with leaf=branch (shoot with own leaves andbuds).
The growing part of the plant
-Turgor ( the ridgedness of the outside of the cell wall)caused by the water pressure in the vacuole-contains waste products
-fills most of the plant (ground tissue)
-thin-walled cells with large vacuoles. These cells mayfunction in storge of water and food,photosynthesis, support and lateral transport
-most common type of plant cell
-cells are usually found near the surface of the stem, leafpetioles and veins. Similar to parenchyma cell but are characterized byunevenly thickened cell walls. Provide flexible support to young plant organs
-in fruiting plants-“wood house”
-cells have thickened cell walls that may contain lignin(support and protection) . Provide support to mature plant structures and may bedead at functional maturity.
-found in the stem-“steal house” (same function of collenchyma butdifferent strength)
-part of dermaltissue
-waxy external layer
-keeps plants from drying out and prevents CO2 from gettingin
-waterproof-controls gas exchange and water vapor
Though, thick, outermost layer around epidermis; prevents desiccation.- Kind of like shell to prevent drying out, but to grow you have to shed it.
a layer of tightly packed cells on the outside (surface) of a plant
-outer covering of the plant-provides protection and regulates movement ofmaterials in and out of the plant
-also known as root hairs
- on the shoot and root
-shoot: protections by on one or many cells
Ex: hook hair on green beans holds insects so they don’t eatit-root: absorption by extension of epidermal cell
-water conduction tissue
-has dead, thick-waled cells that function in both transportof water and support
vascular tissue that conducts food
-food conducting cells-has live, thin-walled cells that transportdissolved food, synthesized by photosynthesis , from leaves to other portionsof the plant
3 tissue types
-producing the outer covering of the plant
2. ground tissue
-make up the bulk of the plant body
3. vascular tissue
-function to transport water, along with dissolved food andmineral nutrients
-food-- we select for the certain food that we want
-medicine- 1/4 perscription medications are plant produced
Plants are autotrophs with chloroplasts and photosyntheticpigments (chlorophyll a with accessory pigments or chlorophyll b withcarotenoids). They take in light energy from the sun and carbon from CO2. and 7 other micronutrients.They make sugar and store it as starch, and get energy from the breakdown offood (mitochondria cellular respiration—requires O2)
10%efficient, most go to waste (heat)
Water: water evaporation fromstomata. Fallen leavesèsoil holds water
N: absorbs Nèanimals eat plants and retain Nthat would wash away
P: between autotrophs andheterotrophs or lost until geological processes return it. It sticks to soilthat is rich in organic matter
-nuclear division in eukaryotic cells.
-makes daughters cells that are exact replicates
four nuclei with half number of chromosomes as parents
-spores grow into gametophytes-plants try to get spores as high as they can sothey have a better chance to disperse the spores
cell division mechanism, ultra structure of flagellate cells, DNA sequences, genome architecture, way of making cellulose walls; enzyme glycolate oxidase(recovery when rubisco grabs O2 instead of CO2,
durable polymer that covers exposed zygote of charophytealgae and forms the walls of plant spores, preventing them from drying out
o Awareness of your thoughts, feelings externalenvironment at any given time
Cyclical changes in arousal approximating a 24hours day
o Body temp and alertness
· CR disturbances
SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus)
- Restoring chemicals that we use during thewaking hours
- Keep your energy levels up
o "Safety" Sleep
- Evolutionary theory that sleeping when we dowill keep us from harm of predators
o resembles waking state
- Length of REM depends on time
o Earlier = shorter Dreams
o Later = longer
· Types of REM dreams
o Earlier= memories from that day
o Later= memories from the past
o slowing, relaxation
- Can still sleep walk
§ Cycles once every 90 minutes
· 1,2,3,4,3,2, REM, 2,3,4….
1. Beta Waves
2. Alpha Waves
3. Delta Waves
o awaken early every morning and leap out of benwith enthusiasm
o Least amount of sleep problems
o Better grades in early classes
o Highest body temp in the AM
o Awaken later and roll out of bed
o Highest body temp in the PM
Go into REM faster & Dream
o If you are continually awoken during REM sleepyour NEED for REM increases
- VIVID nightmares
o Drugs & Alcohol
- Accounts for sleep deprivation
- You sleep but don’t go into REM
REM Rebound that occurs so forcefully that youhave nightmares while awake
Children (6 years) are the best sleepers
· Quality/ Quantity of sleep decreases with age
o Newborn spend 75% in REM
§ Have the longest sleep time and highest REM
o Infants spend 50% in REM
o Adults spend 25% in REM
- Bad mood (usually) Pessimistic
- Driving while drowsy is as bad as driving drunk
o Body Temperature
- Unexplained feeling of coldness
- Goes down/ highly likely to get sick
o Cognitive Tasks
- Can’t do regular tasks
Symbolic meaning behind the dream
Somnambulism / Sleep walking
- Stage 4/ You out grow it
- 25% of children sleep walk at least once
Sleep Terrors/ Night Terrors
-Stage 4/ Should out grow
-Individuals wake up with a racing heart
-NO memory of any dream
o Somniloquy / sleep talking
-Any Stage of sleep
-Fall asleep suddenly
o Sleep Apnea
-Cessation of breathing
-10 seconds of not breathing
-at least 90 times per night
-Problems falling or staying asleep due to drugor situation
- 1/3 of population
o Can help with pain, Blood Pressure, morningsickness, asthma, insomnia, phobias, DID, PTSD, warts, burns, nightmares, sexualdysfunction
o NOT smoking, weight loss, or drug addiction
Affects mood and or consciousness, can becontrolled (prescription) substance or illicit (street) drug or OTC drug oreven Herbal Remedies
- Anything that can change your mood
To Make it better
- Dopamine is the neurotransmitter involved
-Alertness, clarity of thought
-Alertness (small doess increase but high dosesdecrease arousal)(a patch may help you quit)
-Arousal, decrease appitite, energy, are habit-forming. High doses: confusion, fear, aggression
-Euphoria, brief affects, depression, anxiety, <3 prob
-Attention, reaction time, STM
-Distortion of senses (esp. vision)
-Panic, can cause death, flashbacks appear without warning
o Designer Drugs (STP, Ecstasy, MDMA)
-Have hallucinogenic and stimulant effects
-DXM has led to fatal overdoses