CO (cardiac output) x TPR (total peripheral resistance)
CO = ? x ?
SV (stroke volume) x HR (heart rate)
SV = ? - ?
EDV - ESV
What is the major regulatory control of TPR (total peripheral resistance)?
the arteriolar radius
Where is the cardiovascular control center located?
in the medulla
The exitatory (vasomotor) center is located in the _____ medulla and controls _______ innervation
The inhibitory center is located in the _____ medulla and controls _______ innervation. It ________ heart rate.
medial, parasympathetic, decreases
The exitatory center also causes peripheral ________________ and _________ exitation
vasoconstriction, cardiac excitation (both rate and strength)
Where are the arterial baroreceptors located?
carotid sinuses and aortic arch
Does the firing of the baroreceptors increase or decrease when arterial pressure increases?
The firing rate increases.
Where is maximal baroreceptor sensitivity? (High, low, or normal MAP?)
Explain the Val Salva maneuver. What is the effect of "bearing down" on heart rate
It is when a person with a high HR holds their breath and do something like lifting weights. The HR initially increases but then decreases dramatically. This technique is used to help lower heart rate.
Chemoreceptors are sensitive to what? What happens when they are stimulated?
They are sensitive to O2 and CO2 levels. When they are stimulated (by low O2, high CO2, low pH) they stimulate exitatory cardiovascular control centers causing peripheral vasoconstriction, increased CO and increased MAP
What hormone can increase TPR and CO?
What hormones act as vasoconstrictors? Do they raise or lower MAP?
EPI, Angiotensin 2, Vassopressin (ADH) They raise MAP
What hormones act as vasodilators? Do they raise or lower MAP?
EPI and atrial natriuretic peptide. They lower MAP
What is the long-term solution to decreased MAP?
the renal system (kidneys) elevation of volume is the long term control
Why is uncompensated circulatory shock life threatening?
Inadequate perfusion of tissues! like brain and heart
What is the solution to a prolonged increase in MAP?
kidneys increase fluid secretion diuretic drugs for hypertension
What are the possible effects of hypertension
can lead to enlarged hear --> heart failure aneurysms hardening of arteries --> MI, stroke, kidney failure damage to eyes
What effect on CO does hypertension have?
Increase in ESV
What is heart failure?
When left heart and right heart don't put out the same amount of blood.
Left heart failure can cause?
pulmonary edema, excess fluid in lungs
Right heart failure can cause?
systemic/ peripheral edema, excess fluid in peripheral limbs, especially the lower limbs
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