Citation of individual provision of U.S.C. [Rule 12]
Title number • abbreviation of code cited • section symbol and specific section cited • (date of code edition cited).
28 U.S.C. § 1291 (2000).
Statutes currently in force [Rule 12.2]
If possible, cite statute currently in force to the current official code or its supplement.
Otherwise, cite (in this order of preference): unofficial code or its supplement, the official session laws, privately published session laws (e.g., United States Code Congressional and Administrative News), a widely used computer database, an Internet source, or a newspaper.
Official new main edition of U.S.C. is published every 6 years, and annual supplement is published for each intervening year.
Statutes no longer in force [Rule 12.2]
Cite to current official or unofficial code if they still appear therein.
Otherwise, cite (in this order of preference): last edition of official or unofficial code in which statute appeared, the session laws, or a secondary source.
Note fact of invalidation, repeal, or amendment parenthetically.
Law of June 1, 1895, ch. 4322, § 23, 1895 Fla. Laws ch. 3, 20-21 (repealed 1969).
Clayton Act, ch. 323, § 7, 38 Stat. 730, 731-32 (1914) (current version at 15 U.S.C. § 18 (2000)).
Private laws [Rule 12.2]
Cite private laws to the session laws if therein; otherwise cite a secondary source.
Priv. L. No. 94-75, 90 Stat. 2985 (1976).
Scattered statutes [Rule 12.2]
If statute appears in so many scattered sections or titles that no useful citation to the code is possible, cite the session laws. Indicate parenthetically the general location of the codified sections.
Tax Reduction Act of 1975, Pub. L. No. 94-12, 89 Stat. 26 (codified as amended in scattered sections of 26 U.S.C.).
Current version of statute split between main body and supplement of code [Rule 12.2]
Cite according to Rule 3.1.
42 U.S.C. § 1397b (1982 & Supp. I 1983).
Statutes - historical fact [Rule 12.2]
The historical fact of enactment, amendment, or repeal should be cited to the session laws. A parenthetical reference to the current version may be added.
Two years later, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Pub. L. No. 89-110, 79 Stat. 445 (codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. §§ 1971, 1973 to 1973bb-1 (2000)).
Statutes - materially different language [Rule 12.2]
If the language in the current code (including its supplement) differs materially from the language in the session laws and the relevant title has not been enacted into positive law, cite the session laws. A parenthetical reference to the code version, introduced by "codified with some differences in language at" may be given.
But if differences in language merely reflect subsequent amendments, cite the current code.
Current official and unofficial codes [Rule 12.3]
The official federal code is the United States Code (U.S.C.). Unofficial federal codes include the United States Code Annotated (U.S.C.A.) and the United States Code Service (U.S.C.S.). State official/unofficial codes are listed in Table T.1. Cite official code when possible.
Cite code names in large and small capitals.
N.C. GEN. STAT. § 1-181 (2003).
Statutes - name and original section number [Rule 12.3]
Give name and original section number of statute only if statute is commonly cited that way or the information would otherwise aid in identification. Omit "the" as the first word of a statute's name. A popular name of statute may be indicated parenthetically.
Statutes - compilations of uncodified laws [Rule 12.3]
If a code contains uncodified laws printed in a separate compilation, cite in this manner:
N.Y. UNCONSOL. LAW § 751 (McKinney 2000).
Statutes: year of code - bound volume/replacement volume [Rule 12.3]
When citing bound volume of current official or unofficial code (or supplement or pocket code), provide parenthetically year that appears (in this order of preference) on spine of volume, on title page, or latest copyright year.
If date on spine or title page spans more than one year, give all years covered.
If volume is replacement of earlier edition, use year of replacement volume, not year of original.
Statutes: year of code - looseleaf form [Rule 12.3]
If code is published in looseleaf form, give year (in this order of preference) that appears on page on which provision is printed, or year that appears on the first page of the subdivision in which the provision appears.
ALASKA STAT. § 28.01.010 (2002).
Statutes: session laws - name [Rule 12.4]
Give name of statute and public law/chapter number. Omit "the" as 1st word of name. May use official/popular name. If none, identify act with full date "Act of [date of enactment]" or if that's unavailable "Act effective [date of effectiveness]". May give parenthetical info.
White-Slave Traffic (Mann) Act, ch. 395, 36 Stat. 825 (1910) (codified as amended at 18 U.S.C. §§ 2421-2424 (2000)).
Act of Aug. 21, 1974, ch. 85, 1974 N.J. Laws 385 (providing unemployment compensation for jurors).
Statutes: session laws - volume [Rule 12.4]
Give volume number (or if none, the year) of the session laws, followed by abbreviated name of session laws. Official federal session laws, Statutes at Large, are abbreviated "Stat."
1978 Ark. Acts.
1935-1936 Ill. Laws 4th Spec. Sess.
1878 Minn. Laws.
Statutes: session laws - entire act vs. part [Rule 12.4]
If citing entire act, give page of session laws on which act begins.
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Pub. L. No. 91-190, 83 Stat. 852 (1970).
If citing part, give section/subsection(s) cited, page on which act begins, and page(s) on which relevant section/subsection(s) appear.
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Pub. L. No. 91-190, § 102, 83 Stat. 852, 853-54 (1970).
Act of June 15, 1995, No. 302, § 3602(11), 1995 La. Sess. Law Serv. 344, 344 (West).
Give name of act and public law/ch. number. If referring to particular provision, give §/sub§ number after. If possible, cite statutes to U.S.C.C.A.N., indicating the volume number (and page if known) of Statutes at Large where the statute will appear.
Act of July 19, 1985, Pub. L. No. 99-68, 1985 U.S.C.C.A.N. (99 Stat.) 166.
If citing entire act, give page on which act begins. If specific portion, add pages material appears on.
If statutes has been/will be codified and location's known, give.
Statutes: recent statute not yet published in any source [Rule 12.5]
Give only name of act, public law/ch. number, section or subsection number if referring to only part of statute, full date of enactment (or if none, date of approval by executive or effective date), and future location if known in a code or session laws.
Statutes: explanatory parentheticals for relevant information about statute [Rule 12.7]
5 U.S.C. § 553(b) (2000) (requiring agencies to publish notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register).
Statutes: Internal Revenue Code [Rule 12.8]
In citation to the IRC, "26 U.S.C." may be replaced with "I.R.C."
26 U.S.C. § 61 (2000).
Becomes: I.R.C. § 61 (2000).
But the year of the current U.S.C. or its supplement should always be given.
If citation to I.R.C. in unofficial code, identify it with name and year. Thus, citations to U.S.C.A. could appear:
I.R.C. § 1371 (West. Supp. 1991).
I.R.C. § 1247 (West 1988).
Statutes: ordinances [Rule 12.8]
Cite analogously to statutes. Always give name of political subdivision (e.g., city or county) and abbreviated state name at beginning of citation. Print political subdivision, state, and code names in large and small capitals.
MONTGOMERY, ALA., CODE § 3A-11 (1971).
PORTLAND, OR., POLICE CODE art. 30 (1933).
If ordinance is uncodified, give its number (or, if none, its name) and exact date of adoption. And change all to roman type.
San Jose, Cal., Ordinance 16,043 (Jan. 17, 1972).
Statutes: rules of evidence and procedure [Rule 12.8]
Abbreviation of set of rules cited • number of rule cited.
FED. R. CIV. P. 11.
Cite in caps with no date.
If rule is no longer in force, give most recent official source in which it appears and indicate date of repeal parenthetically.
SUP. CT. R. 8, 306 U.S. 690 (1939) (repealed 1954).
Statutes: uniform acts [Rule 12.8]
If citing uniform act as law of particular state, cite as a state statute.
OKLA. STAT. tit. 12A, § 2-314 (2004).
If not citing to law of particular state, cite as a separate code.
U.C.C. § 2-314 (1977).
If citing to U.L.A., provide title of act using abbreviations in Table T.6, § #, yr. of amendment or repeal (if any), appropriate vol. of U.L.A., pg. # on which relevant section appears, and year of pub.
UNIF. ADOPTION ACT § 10, 9 U.L.A. 45 (1988).
Give yr. in which uniform act was last amended.
Statutes: model codes, restatements, standards, and sentencing guidelines, generally [Rule 12.8]
For restatements, give year published. Keep subtitle.
For others, give year manual was adopted, unless version indicates that it incorporates later amendments (then give year of last amendment).
RESTATEMENT (THIRD) OF UNFAIR COMPETITION § 3 (1995).
Indicate author unless it's ABA, AML, NCCUSL, or sentencing commission.
MODEL CHILDREN'S CODE § 3.9B(2) (Am. Indian Law Ctr. 1976).
Statutes: ABA Code of Professional Responsibility and Opinions on Ethics - which rule?
Statutes: generally accepted auditing standards and generally accepted accounting principles - which rule?
Statutes: short form - named statutes [Rule 12.9]
Statutes: short form - U.S. code provisions [Rule 12.9]
Full citation: 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (2000)
Text: 42 U.S.C. § 1983 or § 1983.
Short citation: 42 U.S.C. § 1983 or § 1983.
Statutes: short form - state code provisions [Rule 12.9]
Full citation: DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 28, § 1701 (1999)
Text: title 28, section 1701 of the Delaware Code or section 1701.
Short citation: tit. 28, § 1701 or § 1701.
Statutes: short form - session laws [Rule 12.9]
Full citation: National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Pub. L. no. 91-190, § 102, 83 Stat. 852, 853-54 (1970).
Text: section 102 of the National Environmental Policy Act or section 102.
Short citation: § 102 or National Environment Policy Act § 102 or § 102, 83 Stat. at 853-54.
Statutes: short form - "section" [Rule 12.9]
Except when referring to the United States Code provisions, the word "section" should be spelled out in text/footnote text, but § may be used in citations. See Rule 6.2.
What is Rule 13?
Legislative materials generally [Rule 13]
When citing any U.S. legislative material (except debates), include title (if relevant), abbreviated name of the house, number of the Congress, number assigned to the material, and year of publication. See Table T.9 for abbreviations.
Legislative materials for certain earlier Congresses [Rule 13]
For House and Senate docs published before 60th Congress (1907), House Reports published before the 47th Congress (1881), and Senate Reports published before the 40th Congress (1867), include parenthetically the session number.
For later materials, session number can be inferred from year of publication. First sessions are always in odd-numbered years; second sessions always fall in even-numbered years. Sometimes Congress holds third session - indicate parenthetically.
Unenacted federal bills and resolutions [Rule 13.2]
Include name of bill (if relevant), abbreviated name of house, number of the bill, number of the Congress, section (if any), and year of publication.
S. 516, 105th Cong. § 2 (1997).
A parenthetical indicating date and stage of bill may be provided in order to distinguish among multiple versions of same bill in same Congress.
S. 593, 101st Cong. § 2 (as reported by S. Comm. on the Judiciary, May 12, 1989).
Cite resolutions analogously.
May also cite to pub. comm. hearing, leg. rep., or Cong. Rec.
Enacted bills and resolutions [Rule 13.2]
These are statutes and are cited per Rule 12. Cite accordingly, except when used to document legislative history, in which case they are cited as unenacted bills.
Cite enacted simple and concurrent resolutions (which bind one or both houses) as unenacted bills. Note enactment parenthetically.
S. Res. 141, 106th Cong. (1999) (enacted).
Parallel cite to Cong. Rec. (for simple resolutions) or Statutes at Large (for concurrent) may be provided. But don't put (enacted) for Stat..
State bills and resolutions [Rule 13.2]
Include name of legislative body (per Table T.9), number of bill or resolution, number of the legislative body (or, if not numbered, the year of the body), and number or designation of the legislative session. Give name of state (per Table T.10), and indicate parenthetically year of enactment or if not enacted, year of publication.
H.D. 636, 1999 Leg., 413th Sess. (Md. 1999).
Parallel cite to state session law may be provided.
Include entire subject-matter title as it appears on cover, bill number (if), subcommittee name (if), committee name, number of the Congress, page number of particular material being cited (if), and year of publication. (Per Table T.9; titles per Table T.11).
Protection from Personal Intrusion Act and Privacy Protection Act of 1998: Hearing on H.R. 2448 and H.R. 3224 Before the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 105th Cong. 56-57 (1998) (statement of Richard Masur, President, Screen Actors Guild).
Hearings - state [Rule 13.3]
Same as federal, but also include number of the legislative session.
Tax Credit for Cost of Providing Commuter Benefits to Employees: Hearing on H.D. 636 Before the H. Comm. on Ways & Means, 1999 Leg., 413th Sess. 5-8 (Md. 1999) (statement of Del. Paul Carlson, Member, H. Comm. on Ways and Means).
Numbered federal reports and documents [Rule 13.4]
Include name of house, number of Congress connected by hyphen to number of report, part or page number on which material being cited appears, and year of publication. Use caps.
H.R. REP. NO. 99-253, pt. 1, at 54 (1985).
S. REP. NO. 84-2, at 7 (1955).
For conference reports, same format but add "(Conf. Rep.)" to end.
When possible (especially for docs published after 1974), give parallel cite to U.S.C.C.A.N.
S. REP. NO. 95-797 , at 4 (1978), reprinted in 1978 U.S.C.C.A.N. 9260, 9263.
Reports, docs, and committee prints - titles and authors [Rule 13.4]
Titles of numbered reports or docs may be indicated; if title, is given, author should also be named. (for institutional authors see Rule 15.1)
CALRTON KOEPGE, THE ROAD TO INDUSTRIAL PEACE, H.R. DOC. NO. 82-563, at 29-30 (1953).
U.S. IMMIGRATION COMM'N, IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION, S. DOC. NO. 61-758, at 613 (3d Sess. 1911).
Unnumbered federal documents and committee reports [Rule 13.4]
Must be cited as works of institutional authors (see Rule 15.1). Number of the Congress is part of the author's name.
STAFF OF S. COMM. ON THE JUDICIARY, 81ST CONG., REPORT ON ANTITRUST LAW 17 (Comm. Print 1950).
If document or committee print is primarily work of specific persons, that fact may be noted parenthetically.
Reports - documents, and committee prints - state materials [Rule 13.4]
Include abbreviated name of legislative body, number of the legislative body connected by a hyphen to the number of the report or document, number of the legislative session, part or page number on which material being cited appears, and year of publication. Provide name of state abbreviated according to Table T.10 unless clear from title or author.
S. 178-247, 1st Sess., at 4 (Pa. 1994).
Title may be indicated; if so, also list author.
Debates [Rule 13.5]
Cite congressional debates after 1873 to Congressional Record. Use the daily edition only for matter not yet appearing in the permanent edition.
123 CONG. REC. 17,147 (1977).
131 CONG. REC. S11,465-66 (daily ed. Sept. 13, 1985) (statement of Sen. Wallop).
For debates through 1873: [see rule]
For volume one of the Annals, give name(s) of the editor(s) in parentheses.
Legislative histories of several important acts are published separately. If it helps in locating the source, may give parallel cite (per Rule 15).
Internal Revenue Amendments, Pub. L. No. 87-834, § 15(a), 76 Stat. 960, 1041-42 (1962) (codified at I.R.C. § 1248(a) (2000)), reprinted in JOINT COMM. ON INTERNAL REVENUE TAXATION, 90TH CONG., LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1954, at 473-74 (1967).
Legislative materials: short form - federal bill (unenacted) [Rule 13.7]
Full citation: H.R. 3055, 94th Cong. (1976)
Text: House Bill 3055
Short citation: H.R. 3055
Legislative materials: short form - state resolution [Rule 13.7]
Full citation: S. Res. 20, 37th Leg., 2d Sess. (Okla. 1979).
Text: Oklahoma Senate Resolution 20
Short citation: Okla. S. Res. 20
Legislative materials: short form - federal report [Rule 13.7]
Full citation: H.R. REP. NO. 92-98 (1971)
Text: House Report 98
Short citation: H.R. REP. NO. 92-98
Legislative materials: short form - federal document [Rule 13.7]
Full citation: H.R. DOC. NO. 94-208 (1975)
Text: House Document 208
Short citation: H.R. DOC. NO. 94-208
What is Rule 14?
Administrative and executive materials
Citation of particular provision of regulation in Code of Federal Regulations [Rule 14.2]
C.F.R. title no. • abbreviation of set of regulations cited • section symbol and specific section cited • date of code edition cited.
7 C.F.R. § 319.76 (1999).
When possible, cite to C.F.R. Cite most recent edition. Give name of rule/reg. only if it's commonly cited that way or information would otherwise aid in identification. May abbreviate name of issuing body.
Rules and regulations - Federal Register [Rule 14.2]
Federal Register (Fed. Reg.) publishes rules/regs. before they're entered into C.F.R.
For cite, give commonly used name of rule/reg., volume and page on which rule/reg. begins, and date. When citing part of rule/reg., give both page on which it begins and pag(s) on which cited material appears. Indicate when codified in C.F.R. if possible.
Importation of Fruits and Vegetables, 60 Fed. Reg. 50,379, 50,381 (Sept. 29, 1995) (to be codified at 7 C.F.R. pt. 300).
May shorten very long titles.
Proposed rules and other notices [Rule 14.2]
Cite to Fed. Reg. Follow form for final rules, but add status to date of parenthetical.
Control of Air Pollution from New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines, 56 Fed. Reg. 9754 (proposed Mar. 7, 1991) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 86).
Cite notices for administrative adjudications per Rule 14.3. For other notices, give volume, page, and date. May begin with description/commonly used name.
SEC and Stock Exchange Materials - releases [Rule 14.6]
Cite Federal Register, SEC docket, or service rule. If release is adjudication, abbreviate the parties' names per Rule 14.3. If release has subject-matter title, it may be presented in shortened form. Include act under which release was issued, release number, and full date.
Customer Limit Orders, Exchange Act Release No. 34,753, [1994-1995 Transfer Binder] Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH) ¶ 85,434, at 85,748 (Sept. 29, 1994).
Parallel citation if issued under one+ Securities/Exchange/Investment Co.
SEC and Stock Exchange Materials - staff interpretations [Rule 14.6]
Cite SEC Staff Accounting Bulletins, Staff Legal Bulletins, and Telephone Interpretations as follows:
SEC and Stock Exchange Materials - stock exchange and NASDAQ materials [Rule 14.6]
NYSE, Inc., Listed Company Manual § 313(A) (2002).
NASDAQ, Inc., Form 19b-4 Proposed Rule Change by National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. (Jan. 15, 2003), available at http://www.nasdaq.com/about/SR-NASD-2002-139-Amendment1.pdf.
SEC and stock exchange materials - SEC filings [Rule 14.6]
For annual reports, proxy statements, and other company filings required under federal securities laws, provide name of company, title as given in document, form type in parentheses, page number if applicable, and full date of filing with SEC.
Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978, 3 C.F.R. 321 (1978), reprinted in 5 U.S.C. app. at 1366 (1988), and in 92 Stat. 3781 (1978).
Presidential Papers and Executive Orders - other presidential papers [Rule 14.7]
Presidential papers, speeches, and documents have been published in the Public Papers of the Presidents (PUB. PAPERS) since 1945. For material not yet recorded therein, cite Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (WEEKLY COMP. PRES. DOC.), since 1965, or U.S.C.C.A.N.
Memorandum on New Tools to Help Parents Balance Work and Family, 1 PUB. PAPERS 841 (May 24, 1999).
President's Message to Congress Transmitting Rescissions and Deferrals, 11 WEEKLY COMP. PRES. DOC. 1334 (Dec. 1, 1975).
Presidential Papers and Executive Orders - budgets [Rule 14.7]
Cite as governmental budgets as books (Rule 15).
OFFICE OF MGMT. & BUDGET, EXEC. OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT, BUDGET OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, FISCAL YEAR 2003 (2002).
Court Administrative Orders [Rule 14.8]
Cite official reporter if therein; give title of order, if any.
Order Discharging the Advisory Comm., 352 U.S. 803 (1956).
Short forms for regulations - federal register [Rule 14.10]
Full citation: Importation of Fruits and Vegetables, 60 Fed. Reg. 50,379, 50,381 (Sept. 29, 1995) (to be codified at C.F.R. pt. 300).
Text: Importation of Fruits and Vegetables.
Short citation: Importation of Fruits and Vegetables, 60 Fed. Reg. at 50,381.
What is Rule 15?
Books, reports, and other nonperiodic materials
Book citation, generally [Rule 15]
Author's full name, • title of book • page cited • (editor's full name • abbreviation for editor, • publisher of edition cited • year of edition cited) • (original date of publication).
CHARLES DICKENS, BLEAK HOUSE 50 (Norman Page ed., Penguin Books 1971) (1853).
Books: author, generally [Rule 15.1]
First time work is cited, give author's full name as it appears on publication, including "JR.," etc. (and put comma only if author does). Don't include designation such as "Dr."/"Prof." even if it appears on title page. Use caps.
HAROLD W. FUSON, JR., TELLING IT ALL: A LEGAL GUIDE TO THE EXERCISE OF FREE SPEECH 57-58 (1995).
When citing a single volume of multivolume work, give only author(s) of volume cited. Include volume number, if any, at beginning of citation.
Books: two authors [Rule 15.1]
List authors' names in order in which they appear on title page, separated by an ampersand.
A. LEO LEVIN & MEYER KRAMER, NEW PROVISIONS IN THE KETUBAH: A LEGAL OPINION 3-4 (1955).
If title page establishes an alternative relationship between the two authors, e.g., "WITH" or "AS TOLD TO," use this phrase to separate authors' names.
EARVIN "MAGIC" JOHNSON WITH WILLIAM NOVAK, MY LIFE 39 (1993).
Books: more than two authors [Rule 15.1]
Either use first author's name followed by "ET AL." or list all authors' names. When listing all names, separate by commas except separate last name with ampersand.
A. LEO LEVIN ET AL., DISPUTE RESOLUTION DEVICES IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY 77 (1985).
14 CHARLES ALAN WRIGHT, ARTHUR R. MILLER & EDWARD H. COOPER, FEDERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 3637 (3d ed. 1998).
Books: institutional authors [Rule 15.1]
Begin with author's complete name.
CITY OF NEW HAVEN, RECYCLE NOW NEW HAVEN (1991).
When no individual author is credited, use smallest subdivision that prepared the work and then the overall body of which that subdivision is a part.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CTR., STATE CRIME COMM'N, CRIME IN GEOGRIA 41 (1980).
When individual author is credit on behalf of an institution, use individual's name and then only largest institutional division, unless smaller unit is particularly relevant.
Books: authors - abbreviations [Rule 15.1]
Abbreviate name of an institutional author only if the result will be completely unambiguous. When abbreviating, use those in Tables T.6 and T.10. Abbreviate "United States" to U.S. Omit "Inc.," "Ltd.," and similar terms if name also contains words such as "Ass'n," "Bros.," "Co.," and "Corp.," clearly showing that the institution is a business firm.
NAT'l MUN. LEAGUE, A MODEL ELECTION SYSTEM 3 (1973).
Books: editor or translator, generally [Rule 15.2]
Always give full name of editor and/or translator per Rule 15.1, followed by "ed." or "trans." in the parenthetical containing info about the edition, publisher, and date. Use comma to separate info.
MICHEL FOUCAULT, DISCIPLINE AND PUNISH 30-31 (Alan Sheridan trans., Vintage Books 2d ed. 1995) (1977).
AIDS AND THE LAW (Harlton L. Dalton et al. eds., 1987).
KARL MARX & FREDERICH ENGELS, THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (Joseph Katz ed., Samuel Moore trans., Washington Square Press 1964) (1848).
Books: editor or translator - institutional editors [Rule 15.2]
Follow Rule 15.1, substituting name of the institution for the name of the individual editor. Abbreviate name.
THE ROLE OF MEDIATION IN DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS 33 (Vt. Law Sch. Dispute Resolution Project ed., 1987).
THE BLUEBOOK: A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION (Columbia Law Review Ass'n et al. eds., 18th ed. 2005).
Books: editor or translator - no named parties [Rule 15.2]
If a work has no named author, editor, or translator, it may be necessary to designate an edition by the name of the publisher (Rule 15.4).
Books: title [Rule 15.3]
Cite full title as appears on title page, capitalize per Rule 8 (unless non-English, follow Rule 20.2). Give subtitle only if it's particularly relevant. Don't abbreviate words or omit articles in title. Use caps.
CAPITAL FLOWS IN THE APEC REGION (Moshin S. Khan & Carmen M. Reinhart eds., 1995).
If vol. of multivol. work, give title of volume cited.
If title ends with numeral (or confusing), use comma and "at."
J.A.S. GRENVILLE, THE MAJOR INTERNATIONAL TREATIES, 1914-1973, at 114-15 (1974)
Books: edition, publisher, and date - editions, generally [Rule 15.4]
Always cite latest edition of a work that supports the point under discussion, unless an earlier decision would be particularly relevant or authoritative.
Books: edition, publisher, and date - single edition [Rule 15.4]
If citing work that's been published in only one edition, indicate year of publication in parentheses. In general, cite by the date of the edition rather than the date of a particular printing.
DEBORAH L. RHODE, JUSTICE AND GENDER 56 (1989).
If printing differs in respect relevant to purposes of citation, give printing designation and date of printing instead.
(6th prtg. 1980).
If title of work incorporates date of work, don't omit date of publication, even if it's same date.
Books: edition, publisher, and date - multiple editions by same publisher [Rule 15.4]
If citing work that's been published by same publisher in more than one edition, indicate edition and year edition was published. Follow publisher's terminology when designating an edition.
FLEMING JAMES, JR. ET AL., CIVIL PROCEDURE § 2.3 (4th ed. 1992).
1 WILLIAM MEADE FLETCHER ET AL., FLETCHER CYCLOPEDIA OF THE LAW OF PRIVATE CORPORATIONS § 7.05 (perm. ed., rev. vol. 1999).
Books: edition, publisher, and date - editions by other than the original publisher [Rule 15.4]
Indicate editor and/or translator (if any), edition cited if not the first, and publisher and date of publication of edition cited. Abbreviate publisher's name per Rule 15.1. Unless work is one regularly updated/revised, add second parenthetical indicating date of publication in original edition.
CHARLES DICKENS, BLEAK HOUSE 49-55 (Norman Page ed., Penguin Books 1971) (1853).
THE CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE ¶ 8.191 (15th ed. 2003).
JOHN C.H. WU, THE GOLDEN AGE OF ZEN 214-15 (Image Books 1996) (1975).
Books: edition, publisher, and date - photoduplicated reprints [Rule 15.4]
Cite photoduplicated reprints in the original, indicating in parentheses the existence of a reprint and the date of the reprint, followed by a publication date of original in separate parentheses.
PAUL W. GATES, HISTORY OF PUBLIC LAND LAW DEVELOPMENT 1 (photo. reprint 1979) (1968).
Books: edition, publisher, and date - pre-1900 works [Rule 15.4]
Cite to a scholarly modern edition.
JOHN LOCKE, TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT 137-39 (Peter Laslett ed., Cambridge Univ. Press 1988) (1690).
If there's no modern edition, cite first edition whenever possible. If pre-1900 edition, indicate place of publication and publisher, separated by comma.
1 JAMES F. STEPHEN, A HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW OF ENGLAND 156-57 (London, MacMillan 1883).
If place/date of publication is unavailable, use abbreviation "n.p." for "no place" or "n.d." for "no date."
Books: edition, publisher, and date - supplements [Rule 15.4]
Cite pocket parts and bound supplements per Rule 3.1.
4 SYDNEY C. SCHWEITZER & JOSEPH RASCH, CYCLOPEDIA OF TRIAL PRACTICE § 895 (2d ed. Supp. 1984).
Books: shorter works in collection - works by various authors [Rule 15.5]
List author's full name (per Rule 15.1), followed by title of shorter work in italics, the word "in," the volume number (if any), and name of volume in caps. Always note page on which shorter work begins as well as any pages on which specific material appears. Note eds/trans./edition/publisher parenthetically.
Kay Deaux & Brenda Major, A Social-Psychological Model of Gender, in THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL DIFFERENCE 89, 89 (Deborah L. Rhode ed., 1990).
Books: shorter works in collection - works by same author [Rule 15.5]
If all shorter works within volume are by same author, use same form as if by various authors, but print author's name in caps and place volume number, if any, before author's name.
OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, Law in Science and Science in Law, in COLLECTED LEGAL PAPERS 210, 210 (1920).
ADRIENNE RICH, Transcendental Etude, in THE FACT OF A DOORFRAME 264, 267-68 (1984).
Books: collected documents - originally published [Rule 15.5]
Use the reprinted in form (Rule 1.6). As far as possible, provide complete citation for original work followed by reprinted in and citation of volume containing reprint.
DAVID RAMSAY, AN ADDRESS TO THE FREEMEN OF SOUTH CAROLINA, ON THE SUBJECT OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION (1788), reprinted in PAMPHLETS ON THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, PUBLISHED DURING ITS DISCUSSION BY THE PEOPLE, 1787-1788, at 385 (Paul L. Ford ed., Da Capo Press 1968) (1888).
Books: collected documents - originally unpublished [Rule 15.5]
Cite letters, speeches, manuscripts, diaries, and other similar works that haven't been published except in collection (as Rule 15.5), but print name/description of document in ordinary Roman type. Date of document or other identifying info may be included in parenthetical following document title.
John Adams, Argument and Report, in 2 LEGAL PAPERS OF JOHN ADAMS 285, 322-35 (L. Kinvin Wroth & Hitler B. Zobel eds., 1965).
Books: prefaces, forewords, introductions, and epilogues [Rule 15.6]
Cite as follows:
L. Maria Child, Introduction to HARRIET A. JACOBS, INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL 3, 3-4 (L. Maria Child & Jean F. Yellin eds., Harvard Univ. Press 1987) (1861).
Henry M. Hart & Herbert Wechsler, Preface to the First Edition of PAUL M. BATOR ET AL., HART AND WECHSLER'S THE FEDERAL COURTS AND THE FEDERAL SYSTEM, at xxvii, xxx (3d ed. 1988).
Cite to similar material by author of the work without special designation.
JOHN HART ELY, DEMOCRACY AND DISTRUST, at vii (1980).
Books: serial number - series issued by the author [Rule 15.7]
If publication is one of a series issued by author (other than U.N. docs, see Rule 21.7), include serial number as part of title. Serial number indicator may be abbreviated per Table T.16.
BUREAU OF INTELLIGENCE & RESEARCH, U.S. DEP'T OF STATE, PUB. NO. 8732, WORLD STRENGTH OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY ORGANIZATIONS 65 (1973).
WOMEN'S BUREAU, U.S. DEP'T OF LABOR, LEAFLET NO. 55, A WORKING WOMAN'S GUIDE TO HER JOB RIGHTS 4 (1978).
Books: serial number - series issued by one other than the author [Rule 15.7]
If publication is one of series issued by someone other than the author, indicate series and number parenthetically, abbreviating institutional entities per Rule 15.1.
Anne C. Vladeck, Counseling a Plaintiff During Litigation, in EMPLOYMENT LITIGATION 1990, at 77, 80-82 (PLI Litig. & Admin. Practice, Course Handbook Series No. 386, 1990).
Books: special citation forms - frequently cited words [Rule 15.8]
A few frequently cited works require special citation forms.
BALLENTINE'S LAW DICTIONARY 1190 (3d ed. 1969).
BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY 712 (7th ed. 1999).
88 C.J.S. Trial § 192 (1955).
17 AM. JUR. 2D Contracts § 74 (1964).
Books: special citation forms - star edition [Rule 15.8]
In a very few well-known works, page of original edition (star page) is indicated usually by an asterisk, in either margin or text of all recent editions. In such cases the date and edition may be omitted and citation may be made to the star page, unless the material cited was inserted by the editor of a special edition.
2 WILLIAM BLACKSTONE, COMMENTARIES *152, *155-56.
Books: special citation forms - The Federalist [Rule 15.8]
Cite an entire Federalist paper without indicating a specific edition, and include the author's name parenthetically.
When citing particular material within a paper, however, list usual publication information for edition cited.
THE FEDERALIST NO. 5, at 53 (John Jay) (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1961).
Books: special citation forms - manual for complex litigation [Rule 15.8]
Citations to Manual for Complex Litigation prepared by Federal Judicial Center are as follows:
MANUAL FOR COMPLEX LITIGATION (THIRD) § 33.2 (1995).
MANUAL FOR COMPLEX LITIGATION § 2.10 (5th ed. 1982).
Books: special citation forms - the Bible [Rule 15.8]
Cite as follows:
2 Kings 12:19.
Version may be indicated parenthetically if relevant.
Mark 9:21 (King James).
Books: special citation forms - Shakespeare [Rule 15.8]
Cite as follows:
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, THE SECOND PART OF KING HENRY THE SIXTH act 2, sc. 2.
To cite specific lines, a specific edition should be indicated per Rule 15.4.
Books: special citation forms - the Bluebook [Rule 15.8]
Cite as follows:
THE BLUEBOOK: A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION R. 1.4(e), at 50 (Columbia Law Review Ass'n et al. eds., 18th ed. 2005).
THE BLUEBOOK: A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION 293 tbl.T.10 (Columbia Law Review Ass'n et al. eds., 16th ed. 9th prtg. 1999).
Books: short citation forms, generally [Rule 15.9]
May use id. or supra but never infra.
Generally, follow Rule 4. But for shorter work in collection or collection as a whole:
Fully cited shorter work within volume: may use id. for shorter work if it was cited as immediately preceding authority in same footnote or as sole authority within immediately preceding footnote. Otherwise use supra.
Don't use id. for collection as whole when citing another shorter work within collection. Use supra, instead (with title, not author).
What is Rule 16?
Citation of particular pages in law review, generally [Rule 16]
Author's full name
Citation of entire magazine article, generally [Rule 16]
Author's full name, • title of article, • name of magazine, • cover date of issue, • at • first page of article.
Robert J. Samuelson, A Slow Fix for the Banks, NEWSWEEK, Feb. 18, 2991, at 55.
Citation of signed newspaper article, generally [Rule 16]
Author's full name, headline, • abbreviation of newspaper, • date of article, • at • page on which article appears.
Seth Mydans, Los Angeles Police Chief Removed for 60 Days in Inquiry on Beating, N.Y. TIMES, Apr. 5, 1991, at A1.
Periodical materials - author [Rule 16.1]
For signed material appearing in periodicals (including student-written materials), follow Rule 15.1, but print in ordinary roman type. Thus:
Kim Lane Scheppele, Foreword: Telling Stories, 87 MICH. L. REV. 2073, 2082 (1989).
Paul Butler et al., Race, Law and Justice: The Rehnquist Court and the American Dilemma, 45 AM. U. L. REV. 567, 569 (1996).
Peter Carlson, Tales Out of Law School; Repeat After Us: It's Nothing Like 'L.A. Law,' WASH. POST, July 2, 1989, (Magazine), at W13.
Periodical materials - title [Rule 16.2]
Cite full periodical title as it appears on title page, but capitalize per Rule 8. Don't abbreviate words or omit articles in title. Use italics.
Edward B. Rock, The Logic and (Uncertain) Significance of Institutional Shareholder Activism, 79 GEO. L.J. 445 (1991).
When title contains reference to material that would be italicized when appearing in main text per Rule 2.2, such material should appear in ordinary roman type.
Consecutively paginated journals throughout entire volume [Rule 16.3]
Cite by author, title of work, volume number, periodical name, first page of work, page(s) on which specific material appears, and year in parentheses.
David Rudovsky, Police Abuse: Can the Violence Be Contained?, 27 HARV. C.R.-C.L. L. REV. 465, 500 (1992).
If journal special issue, indicate parenthetically.
John Ferejohn & Charles Shipan, Congressional Influence on Bureaucracy, 6 J.L. ECON. & ORG. (SPECIAL ISSUE) 1 (1990).
If no vol. #, use yr. of pub. as vol. #, omit yr. parenthetical.
Nonconsecutively paginated journals and magazines [Rule 16.4]
Periodicals separately paginated within each issue. Cite by author, title of work, periodical name, date of issue as it appears on cover, first page of work, and if applicable page(s) on which cited material appears following word "at." If no author listed, begin with title.
Barbara Ward, Progress for a Small Planet, HARV. BUS. REV., Sept.-Oct. 1979, at 89, 90.
Damages for a Deadly Cloud: The Bhopal Tragedy Will Cost Union Carbide $470 Million, TIME, Feb. 27, 1989, at 53.
Newspapers - generally [Rule 16.5]
Cite same as nonconsecutively paginated periodicals.
But, (i) when appropriate, designate work as "Editorial," "Op-Ed.," or "Letter to the Editor," after author and before title; (ii) after date, give designation of section in which piece is found if helpful; (iii) give only first page of piece, not location of specific material.
Special citation forms - non-student-written book reviews [Rule 16.6]
Give full name of reviewer, title of review in italics, include 2nd parenthetical after date parenthetical indicating, if relevant to purpose of citation and not clear otherwise, author, title, and publication date of book reviewed. If not, put (book review) at end.
Colin S. Diver, Second Governance and Sound Law, 89 MICH. L. REV. 1436 (1991) (reviewing CHRISTOPHER F. EDLEY, JR., ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: RETHINKING JUDICIAL CONTROL OF BUREAUCRACY (1990)).
If untitled, title "Book Review."
Special citation forms - signed, student-written law review materials [Rule 16.6]
Signed, titled notes, comments, projects, etc. are cited same as other signed article in a law review (Rule 16.3), except designation of piece should appear before title of work to indicate it's student-written.
Student-signed even if just contributing. Initials = not.
B. George Ballman, Jr., Note, Amended Rule 6.1: Another Move Towards Mandatory Pro Bono? Is That What We Want?, 7 GEO. J. LEGAL ETHICS 1139, 1162 n.155 (1994).
Shorter commentary such as "Case Note" w/ no title - author then desig
Special citation forms - unsigned, student-written law review materials [Rule 16.6]
Same as signed, but omit author spot.
Note, The Death of a Lawyer, 56 COLUM. L. REV. 606 (1956).
Case Comment, Evidentiary Use of a Criminal Defendant's Reading Habits and Political Conversations: United States v. Giese, 98 HARV. L. REV. 419, 425-27 (1979).
If no separable designation, italicize entire title.
The Supreme Court, 1998 Term - Leading Cases, 113 HARV. L. REV. 368, 378 n.60 (1999).
Special citation forms - student-written book review [Rule 16.6]
Include author's name and designation "Book Note" (regardless of journal's designation), followed by title (if any). Add parenthetical indicating work under review if relevant to purpose of citation and otherwise unclear.
Nathaniel A. Vitan, Book Note, Irons vs. Rehnquist: A Critical Review of Peter Irons' Brennan vs. Rehnquist, 12 J.L. & POL. 141 (1995).
If unsigned, same manner as other unsigned student works with parenthetical citing work under review if relevant.
Special citation forms - symposia, colloquia, and surveys [Rule 16.6]
When citing as unit, don't give any author, but include "Symposium," etc. before title unless made clear by title. Cite first page of first piece.
Symposium, Changing Images of the State, 107 HARV. L. REV. 1179 (1994).
If article's part of survey of law of one jdx, title of article should incorporate title of survey as follows:
Alain A. Levasseur, Sales, The Work of the Louisiana Appellate Courts for the 1977-1978 Term, 39 LA. L. REV. 705 (1999).
Cite ind. article w/in like any article.
Special citation forms - commentaries and other special designations [Rule 16.6]
When citing "Commentary," "Tribute," "In Memoriam," etc., place designation after author name.
Alvin C. Warren, Jr., Commentary, Financial Contract Innovation and Income Tax Policy, 107 HARV. L. REV. 460 (1993).
Sandra Day O'Connor, Dedication, Lending Light to Countless Lamps: A Tribute to Judge Norma Levy Shapiro, 152 U. PA. L. REV. 1 (2003).
Special citation forms - multipart articles [Rule 16.6]
To cite entire article that appears in more than one part, identify # of parts in parentheses after article's main title and give vol. #, 1st pg., and publication yr for each part.
Harlan F. Stone, The Equitable Rights and Liabilities of Strangers to a Contract (pts. 1 & 2), 18 COLUM. L. REV. 291 (1918), 19 COLUM. L. REV. 177 (1919).
If all parts appear in 1 vol., use shortened form:
L.L. Fuller, Legal Fictions (pts. 1-3), 25 ILL. L. REV. 363, 513, 877 (1930-1931).
Special citation forms - annotations [Rule 16.6]
Cite discussions in selective case reporters (such as American Law Reports and Lawyer's Reports Annotated) by author's name, followed by "Annotation" and title in italics.
William B. Johnson, Annotation, Use of Plea Bargain or Grant of Immunity as Improper Vouching for Credibility of Witness in Federal Cases, 76 A.L.R. FED. 409 (1986).
Special citation forms - proceedings, regular publications by institutes, and ABA section reports [Rule 16.6]
Cite as periodicals.
If volumes are unnumbered, use either # of institute (or proceedings) or yr. of publication as vol. #; in latter case, omit parenthetical reference to year.
David J. Beck, Crude Oil Issues, 30 INST. ON OIL & GAS L. & TAX'N 1 (1979).
If publication organized by ¶ or § numbers, use those in citation.
Max Gutierrez, Estate Planning, 13 INST. ON EST. PLAN ¶ 1600 (1979).
To cite part of article id'd by ¶ or § number, cite both first # of article and # appears; add pg if helps.
Special citation forms - newsletters and other noncommercially distributed periodicals [Rule 16.6]
Same manner as nonconsecutively paginated journals/mags (Rule 16.4), but parenthetical should follow title of pub. indicating issuing group or org. and its location.
Recent Grants, FCD UPDATE (Found. for Child Dev., New York, N.Y.), Dec. 1990, at 1, 7.
Periodical materials - short citation forms [Rule 16.7]
May use id. or supra. Id. is as usual, but indicate difference in page number.
Id. at 3437.
Supra is as usual.
See, e.g., Bruce Ackerman, Robert Bork's Grand Inquisition, 99 YALE L.J. 1419 (1990) (book review). Compare id. (arguing against constitutional transformation by judicial appointment), with Book Note, Manual Labor, Chicago Style, 101 HARV. L. REV. 1323 (1988).
Ackerman, supra note 5, at 1425.
What is Rule 17?
Unpublished and forthcoming sources
Unpublished materials not scheduled for publication, generally [Rule 17.1]
Cite by author, title or description, page(s) if applicable, most precise writing date available, and, if possible, information as to where work can be located. Ordinary roman type.
Manuscripts [Rule 17.1]
Author name, title, subtitle only if relevant, (no abbreviation/omission of words in title), full date of manuscript enclosed in parentheses after title of work or pincite; second parenthetical indicating work is unpublished and describing where it can be found.
Anatoliy Bizhko, Capitalism and Democracy 25 (Feb. 29, 2000) (unpublished manuscript, on file with The Yale Law Journal).
Use this format for student comments/notes unpublished with second parenthetical indicating type of work.
Dissertations and Theses [Rule 17.1]
Cite in same manner as other unpublished manuscripts, but add parenthetical after date to indicate type of work and institution that awarded the degree.
Barbara G. Ryder, Incremental Data Flow Analysis Based on a Unified Model of Elimination Algorithms (Aug. 15, 1982) (unpublished Ph.D dissertation, Rutgers University) (on file with author).
Letters, memoranda, and press releases [Rule 17.1]
Identify writer and addressee (if any) by name, title, and inst. affil. in description of doc.
Letter from Pierre Arsen, Executive Editor, Harvard Law Review, to Bryan Killian, Supreme Court Chair, Harvard Law Review (Apr. 2, 2004) (on file with the Yale Law School Library).
Press Release, Screen Actors Guild, Screen Actors Guild Hails Passage of California Privacy Law (Sept. 30, 1998) (on file with author).
To cite letter written to author of work in which letter is being cited, use "to author."
Interviews [Rule 17.1]
Include name, title, and inst. affil. (if any) of interviewee and date of interview. For in-person, provide location of interview before date.
Interview with Patricia Keane, Editor-in-Chief, UCLA Law Review, in L.A., Cal. (Mar. 2, 2000).
Telephone Interview with John J. Farrell, Senior Partner, Hild (Nov. 11, 1999).
When author hasn't personally conducted interview, give name of interviewer.
Interview by Lauren Eisen with Shane Spradlin, CEO, Nextel Communications, in Potomac, Md. (Mar. 1, 2000).
Speeches and addresses - generally, and no title of speech/address [Rule 17.1]
Id speaker by name. Add his title and institutional affiliation if it's included in description/transcript of doc., or if helpful to reader. Title, pincite where available, and date should follow.
Bradley Smith, Chairman, Fed. Election Comm'n, Keynote Address at the University of Pennsylvania Law Review Symposium: The Law of Democracy (Feb. 6, 2004).
If no title of speech, provide description with id info.
Senator Hubert Humphrey, Address at the Harvard Law Review Annual Banquet (Mar. 29, 1958).
Speeches and addresses - transcribed but not published; published [Rule 17.1]
If transcribed only, include location of transc. in 2nd parenthetical.
Herbert Wechsler, Remarks at the Meeting of the Bar of the Supreme Court of the United States in Memory of Chief Justice Stone 5 (Nov. 12, 1947) (transcript available in the Columbia Law Library).
If published, use in form per Rules 1.6 and 15.5.
James A. Baker, U.S. Sec'y of State, Principles and Pragmatism, Address Before the American-Israeli Public Affairs Committee (May 22, 1989), in DEP'T ST. BULL, July 1989, at 24-25.
Forthcoming publications [Rule 17.2]
Same as if published, except (i) don't include pincite following title of journal/book; (ii) add desig. "forthcoming" in date parenthetical); (iii) include month of publication (if) in addition to yr in date parenthetical.
SARAH BARRINGER GORDON, THE TWIN RELICS OF BARBARISM (forthcoming 2001).
To cite particular pg, add 2nd parenthetical with manuscript pg. cite and location.
Brandon Baer, We're Low on Vermouth, 1 J.L. & OPPRESSION (forthcoming 2001) (manuscript at 3, on file with authors).
Working Papers [Rule 17.3]
Provide parenthetical indicating name of sponsoring organization, working paper designation and #, and year.
Alan J. Auerbach, National Savings, Economic Welfare, and the Structure of Taxation 24-33 (Nat'l Bureau of Econ. Research, Working Paper No. 729, 1981).
Richard Briff, The Political Parties 16-17 (Columbia Law Sch. Pub. Law & Legal Theory Working Paper Group, Paper No. 12, 2000), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=223729.
Unpublished and forthcoming sources - short citation forms [Rule 17.4]
Usual id. and supra, substituting name of source in place of author when no author's listed and enclosing a page citation to manuscript version of forthcoming publication in parentheses.
See Oetken, supra note 2 (manuscript at 15); Davis, supra note 2, at 12.
What is Rule 18?
Electronic media and other nonprint resources
Electronic media and other nonprint resources, permissiveness generally [Rule 18]
Must use and cite traditional printed sources unless (i) info cited is unavailable in such source; or (ii) a copy of source can't be located because it's so obscure that it's practically unavailable.
But, may use electronic source as parallel cite if it substantially improves access. First cite to printed source, then available at and electronic source. Content of electronic source must be identical.
Commercial electronic databases, generally [Rule 18.1]
Preference for LEXIS and Westlaw over other electronic sources (in Rule 18).
Provide case name, docket #, database identifier, and full date of most recent major disposition of case. If database contains codes/#s that uniquely id case (as do LEXIS/Westlaw), must give. Precede screen/page #s with *, and paragraph with ¶.
Gibbs v. Frank, No. 02-3924, 2004 U.S. App. LEXIS 21357, at *18 (3d Cir. Oct. 14, 2004).
Shelton v. Perz, No. B171606, 2004 WL 2163741, at *1 (Cal. Sept. 28, 2004).
If database name unclear from identifier, include it parenthetically at end of cite.
Commercial electronic databases - constitutions and statutes [Rule 18.1]
Cite codes/session per Rules 12.3, .4. Also, give parenthetically name of database and info regarding currency of database as provided by database itself (rather than year of code per Rule 12.3).
CAL. BUS. & PROF. CODE § 1670 (Deering, LEXIS through 1995 Sess.).
WIS. STAT. ANN. § 19.43 (West, Westlaw through 1995 Act 26).
Some popular sites are served by more than one URL. Use primary URL.
Yahoo! Home Page, http://www.yahoo.com.
Not: Yahoo! Home Page, http://www1.yahoo.com.
Internet - document format [Rule 18.2]
If document's available in both HTML and widely used format that preserves pagination, etc. (e.g., PDF), use the latter.
HEIDI GOLDBERG, CTR. ON BUDGET & POLICY PRIORITIES, STATE AND COUNTY SUPPORTED CAR OWNERSHIP PROGRAMS 1 (2001), http://www.cbpp.org/11-8-01wel.pdf.
Internet: parallel citations - author, title, pagination, and publication data [Rule 18.2]
Use information from printed source, even if Internet source differs slightly, But if differs materially, don't use parallel cite.
Letter from John Brady, U.S. Diplomat, to Colin Powell, U.S. Sec'y of State (Feb. 27, 2003) (on file with author), available at http://www.truthout.org.
Not: Letter from John Brady, U.S. Diplomat, to Colin Powell, U.S. Sec'y of State (on file with author), available at http://www.truthout.org (last modified Jan. 15, 2004).
Internet: parallel citations - order of authorities and parentheticals [Rule 18.2]
Parallel cite with available at doesn't affect order of authorities under Rule 1.4.
Polly Price, Precedent and Judicial Power, 42 B.C. L. REV. 81, 84 (2000) (emphasis added) (citing GUIDO CALABRESI, A COMMON LAW FOR THE AGE OF STATUTES 4 (1982)), available at http://www.bc.edu/schools/law/lawreviews/42_1/02_FMS.htm (discussing precedent in the context of statutory construction).
Internet: direct citations to internet sources - generally; typeface [Rule 18.2]
Title, pagination, and publication date reported as on internet, followed by URL.
Yonatan Lupu, The Wiretap Act and Web Monitoring: A Breakthrough for Privacy Rights?, 9 VA. J.L. & TECH. 3, ¶ 7 (2004), http://ww.vjolt.net/vol9/issue1/v9i1_ao3-Lupu.pdf.
If Internet source also is in unavailable printed format or has close analogue in printed medium, use typeface of printed source (e.g., italicize article).
Douglas Ganten, Mad Cows Come Home, SLATE, Jan. 5, 2004, http://slate.msn.com
Internet: direct citations to internet sources - author/title; pincites [Rule 18.2]
Should appear as does in window of browser viewing site. If very long/uninformative/confusing, give alt. title describing source.
Not: Deal-With-It.org | The Cards | Antonin Scalia, http://www (and so on).
If no author, can use title if it clearly ids site. But if nothing particular, may give description of site.
If PDF, etc. used, use pincites where appropriate.
Internet: direct citations to internet sources - date; archival [Rule 18.2]
Format dates as they'd appear for analogous printed materials (Rules 10-17, 19-21). If no close print analogue, treat as unpublished source and provide date as it appears on site.
Use date that pertains to material cited (not overall site). When material is otherwise undated, give last visited date in parenthetical after URL.
Don't give location of archival copy of citation (e.g., "on file with author").
Email correspondence [Rule 18.2]
Analogize personal emails to unpublished letters (Rule 17.1). Date of message and time-stamp may be needed for specific id of message. Archival info should be included parenthetically. E-mail address of sender/recipient aren't required, but may be included if there's reason.
E-mail from Mary Prince, Associate Director, Vanderbilt Law Library, to Edward Brewer, Professor of Law, Salmon Chase College of Law (Sept. 26, 1999, 06:15:08 CST) (on file with author).
Listservs are like email but include author's email and listserv address.
Posting of Archie Leach, firstname.lastname@example.org, to Art-Law@zealot.org (Apr. 14, 2000) (on file with author).
Discussion forums too, but include URL and don't include author's email.
Posting of Pokey Woulda Had It to http://forums.fark.com/cgi/fark/comments.pl?IDLink=112788 (Sept. 17, 2004, 12:57:36 EST).
Blogs: title before URL. If only one poster, cite as web page but include date and time-stamp. If multiple, discussion forum.
CD-ROM [Rule 18.3]
Include title of material, publisher of CD-ROM, version searched, date of material, if available, or date or version searched. Info may me provided in source-date parenthetical or, if info is voluminous, as related authority (Rule 1.6).
46 C.F.R § 57.105(a) (West LawDesk Code of Federal Regulations CD-ROM, current through July 1, 1999).
7 LAWRENCE P. KING, COLLIER ON BANKRUPTCY ¶ 700.02 (Matthew Bender Authority Bankruptcy Law CD-ROM, rel. 13, Aug. 1999).
If doc.'s rep'd in microform, not necessary to indicate fact unless it's otherwise tough for reader to get source. When citing material as microformer on a service, provide complete cite to original doc and cite to microform per Rule 1.6. If microform service assigns unique identified/code to each doc, include that. Include name of publisher of microform publisher in ().
S. 1237, 99th Cong. § 505 (1985), microformed on Sup. Docs. No. Y 1.4/1:99-1237 (U.S. Gov't Printing Office).
Microform - collections containing original materials [Rule 18.4]
Id microform set and its publisher and use publisher's system for id'ing individual forms within the set. Use preexisting materials rule as guide.
Films, broadcasts, and noncommercial video materials [Rule 18.5]
Use caps for films; italics for TV/radio broadcasts (by title, episode name, and exact date). Include name of co./network that produced or aired film/broadcast.
Law & Order: Tabula Rasa (NBC television broadcast Apr. 21, 1999).
Cite vid. mats. containing imgs that haven't been commercially displayed/broadcast by medium of material, title of video or DVD (if any), name of person/inst. that produced video, and yr of prod.
DVD: 2004 Yale Law Revue (Yale Media Services 2004) (on file with author).
Audio recordings - commercial [Rule 18.6]
Cite by artist and title, providing name of recording company and date of release, if available.
THE BEATLES, SGT. PEPPER'S LONELY HEARTS CLUB BAND (Capitol Records 1990) (1967).
If particular song/musical work is referred to, cite it by analogy to shorter works in collection per Rule 15.5.
DON HENLEY, The Boys of Summer, on BUILDING THE PERFECT BEAST (Geffen Records 1984).
Auido recordings - noncommecial [Rule 18.6]
Same as commercial, but use ordinary roman type and indicate parenthetically where copy may be obtained.
Audio tape: Conference on Business Opportunities in Space, held by the Center for Space Policy, Inc., and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (Mar. 3-5, 1986) (on file with author).
Commercial electronic databases: short forms [Rule 18.7]
Use unique database id'er, if one has been assigned.
Int'l Snowmobile, 2004 WL 2337372, at *3.
Chavez, 2004 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 11266, at *5 n.3.
CD-ROM and Microform: short forms [Rule 18.7]
Use short form appropriate for original doc (separately published on CD-ROM or microform). Not necessary to indicate source once it has been given in first full citation.
Internet: short forms [Rule 18.7]
Use short form appropriate or analogous type of printed source. For those without analogue, use supra with last name of author (if any) or title or description of doc. URL needn't be repeated in short form.
See Douglas Gantenbeing, Mad Cows Come Home, SLATE, Jan. 5, 2004, http://slate.msn.com/2093396/.
Gantenbein, supra note 1; Pfizer, Inc., supra note 2.
Films, broadcasts, and audio recordings: short forms [Rule 18.7]
Id. and supra may be used per Rule 4.
MEAT LOAF, For Crying Out Loud, on BAT OUT OF HELL (Epic Records 1977).
MEAT LOAF, supra note 6.
What is Rule 19?
Services (cases, administrative materials, and brief commentaries are often published unofficially in topical compilations called "services," which appear in looseleaf form initially and sometimes later are published as bound volumes).
Services, generally [Rule 19]
Cite by volume, abbreviated title in ordinary roman type, publisher, subdivision, and date.
In re Smithfield Estates, Inc., [1985-1986 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) ¶ 70,707 (Bankr. D.R.I. Aug. 9, 1985).
If looseleaf material will eventually be bound, add name of bound form in parentheses if it's diff from name of looseleaf form. Include vol. of bound if available.
Annotations to civil law cases are cited per Rule 3.4.
Cass. 1e civ., Dec. 14, 1982, D. 1983 p. 416, note Aynes (Fr.).
Foreign materials: constitutions [Rule 20.4]
Cite by name. If nature of doc isn't otherwise clear from context, include "Constitution" in brackets following doc name in first cite. Successive cites may exclude this. If country is unclear from title of constitution, include country abbreviation in parenthetical at end of citation.
GRUNDGESETZ [GG] [Constitution] art. 51 (F.R.G.).
Foreign materials: statutes in common law systems [Rule 20.5]
Cite like U.S. statutes (Rule 12) if jdx's statutes appear in a codification or other compilation.
Otherwise, cite like statutes of England (Table T.2), noting jdx parenthetically at end of cite if not otherwise clear from context.
Emergency Powers Act, No. 3 (1976) (Ir.).
Foreign materials: statutes in civil law and other non-common-law jdxs [Rule 20.5]
Cite generally per Table T.2. When citing code, don't indicate year of code unless citing version no longer in force. Per Rule 20.2, use full publication name first time publication is cited, indicating in brackets the abbreviation that'll be used subsequently.
CODE CIVIL [C. CIV.] atr. 1112 (Fr.).
Give publisher/editor and date of privately published sources only when citing annotation rather than code.