Bluebook (Rules 12-21)
- Yale University
- Legal Studies
- Legal Studies Bluebook
- Bluebook (Rules 12-21)
Last Modified: 2011-06-01
- Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601-9675 (2000).
- 28 U.S.C. § 1291 (2000).
Otherwise, cite (in this order of preference): unofficial code or its supplement, the official session laws, privately published session laws (e.g., United States Code Congressional and Administrative News), a widely used computer database, an Internet source, or a newspaper.
Official new main edition of U.S.C. is published every 6 years, and annual supplement is published for each intervening year.
Otherwise, cite (in this order of preference): last edition of official or unofficial code in which statute appeared, the session laws, or a secondary source.
Note fact of invalidation, repeal, or amendment parenthetically.
- Law of June 1, 1895, ch. 4322, § 23, 1895 Fla. Laws ch. 3, 20-21 (repealed 1969).
- Clayton Act, ch. 323, § 7, 38 Stat. 730, 731-32 (1914) (current version at 15 U.S.C. § 18 (2000)).
- Priv. L. No. 94-75, 90 Stat. 2985 (1976).
- Tax Reduction Act of 1975, Pub. L. No. 94-12, 89 Stat. 26 (codified as amended in scattered sections of 26 U.S.C.).
- Robinson-Patman Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 13-13b, 21a (2000).
- 42 U.S.C. § 1397b (1982 & Supp. I 1983).
- Two years later, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Pub. L. No. 89-110, 79 Stat. 445 (codified as amended at 42 U.S.C. §§ 1971, 1973 to 1973bb-1 (2000)).
But if differences in language merely reflect subsequent amendments, cite the current code.
Cite code names in large and small capitals.
- N.C. GEN. STAT. § 1-181 (2003).
- Labor Management Relations (Taft-Hartley) Act § 301(a), 29 U.S.C. § 185(a) (2000).
- Occupation Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970, 29 U.S.C. § 651 (2000).
- 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (2000).
- 12 U.S.C.S. § 1710 (LexisNexis 1993 & Supp. 2004).
Form for citation to state codes varies (see Table T.1).
If each title/ch./vol. of code contains differently numbered §s/¶s, the title/ch./vol. number needn't be given separately.
- GA. CODE ANN. § 21-2-16 (2003).
- CAL. VEH. CODE § 11506 (West 2000).
- TEX. FAM. CODE ANN. § 5.01 (Vernon 2002 & Supp. 2004-2005).
- 42 U.S.C.A. § 300a-7 (West 2001).
- 18 U.S.C.S. § 1307 (LexisNexis 1994 & Supp. 2004).
- CAL. VEH. CODE § 11509 (West 2000).
- N.Y. BUS. CORP. LAW § 717 (McKinney 2003).
- N.Y. UNCONSOL. LAW § 751 (McKinney 2000).
If date on spine or title page spans more than one year, give all years covered.
If volume is replacement of earlier edition, use year of replacement volume, not year of original.
- ALASKA STAT. § 28.01.010 (2002).
- White-Slave Traffic (Mann) Act, ch. 395, 36 Stat. 825 (1910) (codified as amended at 18 U.S.C. §§ 2421-2424 (2000)).
- Act of Aug. 21, 1974, ch. 85, 1974 N.J. Laws 385 (providing unemployment compensation for jurors).
- 1978 Ark. Acts.
- 1935-1936 Ill. Laws 4th Spec. Sess.
- 1878 Minn. Laws.
- National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Pub. L. No. 91-190, 83 Stat. 852 (1970).
If citing part, give section/subsection(s) cited, page on which act begins, and page(s) on which relevant section/subsection(s) appear.
- National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Pub. L. No. 91-190, § 102, 83 Stat. 852, 853-54 (1970).
- Act of June 15, 1995, No. 302, § 3602(11), 1995 La. Sess. Law Serv. 344, 344 (West).
- Labor-Management Relations Act, ch. 120, sec. 101, § 8(a)(3), 61 Stat. 136, 140-41 (1947).
- McCarran-Ferguson Act, ch. 20, 59 Stat. 33 (1945) (codified as amended at 15 U.S.C. §§ 1011-1015 (2000)).
Omit year of statute's passage if same year is part of name of statute or of the session laws.
- Securities Act of 1933, ch. 38, 48 Stat. 74 (codified as amended at 15 U.S.C. §§ 77a-77aa (2000)).
- Act of July 12, 1985, ch. 223, § 3, 1985 Cal. Legis. Serv. 239, 241 (West) (to be codified at CAL. INS. CODE § 11589.5).
- Act of July 19, 1985, Pub. L. No. 99-68, 1985 U.S.C.C.A.N. (99 Stat.) 166.
If citing entire act, give page on which act begins. If specific portion, add pages material appears on.
If statutes has been/will be codified and location's known, give.
- Alabama Corporate Income Tax Reform Act, No. 85-515 (May 8, 1985).
- Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) of 1993, Pub. L. No. 103-141, 1993 U.S.C.C.A.N. (107 Stat.) 1488, invalidated by City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997).
- Law of June 1, 1895, ch. 4322, § 23, 1895 Fla. Laws ch. 3, 20-21 (repealed 1969).
- Act of Jan. 24, 1923, ch. 42, 42 Stat. 1174, 1208, repealed by Budget and Accounting Procedures Act of 1950, ch. 946, § 301(97), 64 Stat. 832, 844.
- Supplemental Appropriation Act of 1955, Pub. L. No. 663, § 1311, 68 Stat. 800, 830 (1954) (amended 1959).
- 33 U.S.C. § 1232 (1982), amended by 33 U.S.C. § 1232(f) (Supp. I 1983).
- Clayton Act, ch. 323, § 7, 38 Stat. 730, 731-32 (1914) (current version at 15 U.S.C. § 18 (2000)).
- 33 U.S.C. § 1232(f) (Supp. I 1983) (amending 33 U.S.C. § 1232 (1982)).
- Clayton Act § 7, 15 U.S.C. § 18 (2000) (original version at ch. 323, § 7, 38 Stat. 730, 731-32 (1914)).
- 5 U.S.C. § 553(b) (2000) (requiring agencies to publish notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register).
- 26 U.S.C. § 61 (2000).
- Becomes: I.R.C. § 61 (2000).
But the year of the current U.S.C. or its supplement should always be given.
If citation to I.R.C. in unofficial code, identify it with name and year. Thus, citations to U.S.C.A. could appear:
- I.R.C. § 1371 (West. Supp. 1991).
- I.R.C. § 1247 (West 1988).
- MONTGOMERY, ALA., CODE § 3A-11 (1971).
- PORTLAND, OR., POLICE CODE art. 30 (1933).
If ordinance is uncodified, give its number (or, if none, its name) and exact date of adoption. And change all to roman type.
- San Jose, Cal., Ordinance 16,043 (Jan. 17, 1972).
- FED. R. CIV. P. 11.
Cite in caps with no date.
If rule is no longer in force, give most recent official source in which it appears and indicate date of repeal parenthetically.
- SUP. CT. R. 8, 306 U.S. 690 (1939) (repealed 1954).
- OKLA. STAT. tit. 12A, § 2-314 (2004).
If not citing to law of particular state, cite as a separate code.
- U.C.C. § 2-314 (1977).
If citing to U.L.A., provide title of act using abbreviations in Table T.6, § #, yr. of amendment or repeal (if any), appropriate vol. of U.L.A., pg. # on which relevant section appears, and year of pub.
- UNIF. ADOPTION ACT § 10, 9 U.L.A. 45 (1988).
Give yr. in which uniform act was last amended.
For restatements, give year published. Keep subtitle.
For others, give year manual was adopted, unless version indicates that it incorporates later amendments (then give year of last amendment).
- RESTATEMENT (THIRD) OF UNFAIR COMPETITION § 3 (1995).
If tentative, indicate parenthetically.
- RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS § 847A (Tentative Draft No. 17, 1974).
Indicate author unless it's ABA, AML, NCCUSL, or sentencing commission.
- MODEL CHILDREN'S CODE § 3.9B(2) (Am. Indian Law Ctr. 1976).
Text: 42 U.S.C. § 1983 or § 1983.
Short citation: 42 U.S.C. § 1983 or § 1983.
Text: title 28, section 1701 of the Delaware Code or section 1701.
Short citation: tit. 28, § 1701 or § 1701.
Text: section 102 of the National Environmental Policy Act or section 102.
Short citation: § 102 or National Environment Policy Act § 102 or § 102, 83 Stat. at 853-54.
For later materials, session number can be inferred from year of publication. First sessions are always in odd-numbered years; second sessions always fall in even-numbered years. Sometimes Congress holds third session - indicate parenthetically.
- S. 516, 105th Cong. § 2 (1997).
A parenthetical indicating date and stage of bill may be provided in order to distinguish among multiple versions of same bill in same Congress.
- S. 593, 101st Cong. § 2 (as reported by S. Comm. on the Judiciary, May 12, 1989).
Cite resolutions analogously.
May also cite to pub. comm. hearing, leg. rep., or Cong. Rec.
Cite enacted simple and concurrent resolutions (which bind one or both houses) as unenacted bills. Note enactment parenthetically.
- S. Res. 141, 106th Cong. (1999) (enacted).
Parallel cite to Cong. Rec. (for simple resolutions) or Statutes at Large (for concurrent) may be provided. But don't put (enacted) for Stat..
- H.D. 636, 1999 Leg., 413th Sess. (Md. 1999).
Parallel cite to state session law may be provided.
- H.R.J. Res. 1, 40th Leg., 2d Spec. Sess., 1974 Utah Laws 7.
- Protection from Personal Intrusion Act and Privacy Protection Act of 1998: Hearing on H.R. 2448 and H.R. 3224 Before the H. Comm. on the Judiciary, 105th Cong. 56-57 (1998) (statement of Richard Masur, President, Screen Actors Guild).
- Tax Credit for Cost of Providing Commuter Benefits to Employees: Hearing on H.D. 636 Before the H. Comm. on Ways & Means, 1999 Leg., 413th Sess. 5-8 (Md. 1999) (statement of Del. Paul Carlson, Member, H. Comm. on Ways and Means).
- H.R. REP. NO. 99-253, pt. 1, at 54 (1985).
- S. REP. NO. 84-2, at 7 (1955).
For conference reports, same format but add "(Conf. Rep.)" to end.
When possible (especially for docs published after 1974), give parallel cite to U.S.C.C.A.N.
- S. REP. NO. 95-797 , at 4 (1978), reprinted in 1978 U.S.C.C.A.N. 9260, 9263.
- CALRTON KOEPGE, THE ROAD TO INDUSTRIAL PEACE, H.R. DOC. NO. 82-563, at 29-30 (1953).
- U.S. IMMIGRATION COMM'N, IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION, S. DOC. NO. 61-758, at 613 (3d Sess. 1911).
- STAFF OF S. COMM. ON THE JUDICIARY, 81ST CONG., REPORT ON ANTITRUST LAW 17 (Comm. Print 1950).
If document or committee print is primarily work of specific persons, that fact may be noted parenthetically.
- S. 178-247, 1st Sess., at 4 (Pa. 1994).
Title may be indicated; if so, also list author.
- 123 CONG. REC. 17,147 (1977).
- 131 CONG. REC. S11,465-66 (daily ed. Sept. 13, 1985) (statement of Sen. Wallop).
For debates through 1873:
For volume one of the Annals, give name(s) of the editor(s) in parentheses.
- Internal Revenue Amendments, Pub. L. No. 87-834, § 15(a), 76 Stat. 960, 1041-42 (1962) (codified at I.R.C. § 1248(a) (2000)), reprinted in JOINT COMM. ON INTERNAL REVENUE TAXATION, 90TH CONG., LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1954, at 473-74 (1967).
Text: House Bill 3055
Short citation: H.R. 3055
Text: Oklahoma Senate Resolution 20
Short citation: Okla. S. Res. 20
Text: House Report 98
Short citation: H.R. REP. NO. 92-98
Text: House Document 208
Short citation: H.R. DOC. NO. 94-208
- 7 C.F.R. § 319.76 (1999).
When possible, cite to C.F.R. Cite most recent edition. Give name of rule/reg. only if it's commonly cited that way or information would otherwise aid in identification. May abbreviate name of issuing body.
- FTC Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. § 444.1 (1999).
For cite, give commonly used name of rule/reg., volume and page on which rule/reg. begins, and date. When citing part of rule/reg., give both page on which it begins and pag(s) on which cited material appears. Indicate when codified in C.F.R. if possible.
- Importation of Fruits and Vegetables, 60 Fed. Reg. 50,379, 50,381 (Sept. 29, 1995) (to be codified at 7 C.F.R. pt. 300).
May shorten very long titles.
- Control of Air Pollution from New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines, 56 Fed. Reg. 9754 (proposed Mar. 7, 1991) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 86).
Cite notices for administrative adjudications per Rule 14.3. For other notices, give volume, page, and date. May begin with description/commonly used name.
- Meeting Notice, 65 Fed. Reg. 3415 (Jan. 21, 2000).
- 4 NLRB ANN. REP. 93 (1939).
- 1955-1956 MICH. ATT'Y GEN. BIENNIAL REP. pt. 1, at 621.
- OFFICE OF MGMT. & BUDGET, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT, OMB BULL. NO. 99-04, REVISED STATISTICAL DEFINITIONS OF METROPOLITAN AREAS (MAS) AND GUIDANCE ON USES OF MA DEFINITIONS (1999).
- U.S. GEN. ACCOUNTING OFFICE, WELFARE REFORM: FEDERAL OVERSIGHT OF STATE AND LOCAL CONTRACTING CAN BE STRENGTHENED 8 (1998).
Cite by reported name of first-listed private party or by official subject-matter title. Omit all procedural phrases.
- Trojan Transp., Inc., 249 N.L.R.B. 642 (1980).
- Great Lakes Area Case, 8 C.A.B. 360 (1947).
May shorten titles that indicate nature/stage of proceeding. Such info may be included in parenthetical phrase at end of cite.
- Bottled Green Olives from Spain, 50 Fed. Reg. 28,237 (Dep't of Commerce July 11, 1985) (final admin. review).
- Hartung v. Comm'r, 55 T.C. 1 (1970).
- Kroger Co. v. Amalgamated Meat Cutters, Local 539, 74 Lab. Arb. Rep. (BNA) 785, 787 (1980 (Doering, Arb.).
- Charles P. Ortmeyer, 23 Indus. Arb. 272 (1980) (Stern, Arb.).
- Tennessee Intrastate Rates & Charges, 286 I.C.C. 41 (1952).
If not, cite official release or slip opinion. Give full date, any helpful publication number, and number of the case or investigation.
- Iron Construction Castings from Brazil, Canada, India, and the People's Republic of China, USITC Pub. 1720, Inv. No. 701-TA-249 (June 1985).
- Rosenberg Library Ass'n, 269 N.L.R.B. No. 197 (Apr. 24, 1984).
When possible, append a parallel citation to an unofficial reporter, service, or other source (in that order of preference):
- Rosenberg Library Ass'n, 269 N.L.R.B. No. 197, 1983-1984 NLRB Dec. (CCH) ¶ 16,238 (Apr. 24, 1984).
- Gen. Dynamics Corp., 50 Fed. Reg. 45,949 (Dep't of Labor Nov. 5, 1985).
- 42 Op. Att'y Gen. 111 (1962).
Name of opinion may be included.
- Legality of Revised Philadelphia Plan, 42 Op. Att'y Gen. 405 (1969).
To refer to specific page(s), use pincite:
- 1 Op. Off. Legal Counsel 168, 173-74 (1977).
If opinion appears only in un/separately paginated slip opinion but will eventually be including in a volume, cite per Rule 14.3.
- Rights-of-Way Across National Forests, 43 Op. Att'y Gen. No. 26 (June 23, 1980).
- Treas. Reg. § 1.72-16(a) (1963).
Citations to specific Q & A should be cited as:
- Treas. Reg. § 1.72-16(a), Q&A (3)(a) (1963).
If any sub§ has been amended or reg. has appeared in substantially diff. versions, give year of last amendment and cite without source.
- Treas. Reg. § 1.61-2(c) (as amended in 1995).
- Prop. Treas. Reg. § 1.704-1, 48 Fed. Reg. 9871, 9872 (Mar. 9 1983).
- Rev. Rul. 83-137, 1983-2 C.B. 41.
See rule for three series.
- I.R.S. Priv. Ltr. Rul. 86-01-012 (Sept. 30, 1985).
- I.R.S. Tech. Adv. Mem. 85-04-005 (Sept. 28, 1984).
- I.R.S. Gen. Couns. Mem. 39, 417 (Sept. 30, 1985).
- I.R.S. Deleg. Order No. 4 (Rev. 14), 1983-2 C.B. 405.
- I.R.S. Notice 84-9, 1984-1 C.B. 341.
- I.R.S. Tech. Mem. 1984-524 (June 14, 1984).
- I.R.S. News Release IR-84-111 (Oct. 19, 1984).
- Benson v. Comm'r, 80 T.C. 789 (1983).
If Comm'r of I.R.S. has published acquiescence (acq.), acq. in result (acq. in result), or nonacq. (nonacq.) in decision of Tax Ct. or Tax App., may indicate in citation.
- New Mexico Bancorp. v. Comm'r, 74 T.C. 1342 (1980), acq. in result, 1983-2 C.B. 1.
Action on decision (action on dec.).
- Keller v. Comm'r, 79 T.C. 7 (1982), action on dec., 1984-037 (Apr. 23, 1984).
- Union Carbide Corp., SEC No-Action Letter, [1994-1995 Transfer Binder] Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH) ¶ 76,911, at 78,641 (Apr. 15, 1994).
- Nike, Inc., SEC No-Action Letter, 1997 WL 384740, at *16 (July 10, 1997).
- Customer Limit Orders, Exchange Act Release No. 34,753, [1994-1995 Transfer Binder] Fed. Sec. L. Rep. (CCH) ¶ 85,434, at 85,748 (Sept. 29, 1994).
Parallel citation if issued under one+ Securities/Exchange/Investment Co.
- SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 56, 49 Fed. Reg. 4936 (1984).
- NYSE, Inc., Listed Company Manual § 313(A) (2002).
- NASDAQ, Inc., Form 19b-4 Proposed Rule Change by National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. (Jan. 15, 2003), available at http://www.nasdaq.com/about/SR-NASD-2002-139-Amendment1.pdf.
- Coca-Cola Co., Annual Report (Form 10-K), at 22 (Feb. 27, 2004).
- Sony Music Entm't Inc., Statement of Changes in Beneficial Ownership (Form 4/A) (Jan. 23, 2004)
If citing document in form other than that filed under SEC, use Rule 15.
- Exec. Order No. 11,609, 3 C.F.R. 586 (1971-1975), reprinted as amended in 3 U.S.C. § 301 app. at 404-07 (1988).
Cite Fed. Reg. if material isn't in C.F.R.
- Exec. Order No. 12,531, 50 Fed. Reg. 36,033 (Aug. 30, 1985).
May give parallel cite to Stat.
- Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978, 3 C.F.R. 321 (1978), reprinted in 5 U.S.C. app. at 1366 (1988), and in 92 Stat. 3781 (1978).
- Memorandum on New Tools to Help Parents Balance Work and Family, 1 PUB. PAPERS 841 (May 24, 1999).
- President's Message to Congress Transmitting Rescissions and Deferrals, 11 WEEKLY COMP. PRES. DOC. 1334 (Dec. 1, 1975).
- OFFICE OF MGMT. & BUDGET, EXEC. OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT, BUDGET OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, FISCAL YEAR 2003 (2002).
- Order Discharging the Advisory Comm., 352 U.S. 803 (1956).
May include patent name and/or issuing date.
- Cryptographic Communications Sys. & Method, U.S. Patent No. 4,405,829 (filed Dec. 14, 1977) (issued Sep. 20, 1983).
To cite specific field of title page, include field code in brackets.
- U.S. Patent No. 4,405,829, at  (filed Dec. 14, 1977).
For portion of text/patent fig./item within figure:
- U.S. Patent No. 4,405,829 fig.3, item 22 (filed Dec. 14, 1977).
Short form: last 3 digits of patent #.
- '829 Patent.
Text: 16 C.F.R. § 444.1
Short citation: 16 C.F.R. § 444.1 or § 444.1
Text: Importation of Fruits and Vegetables.
Short citation: Importation of Fruits and Vegetables, 60 Fed. Reg. at 50,381.
- CHARLES DICKENS, BLEAK HOUSE 50 (Norman Page ed., Penguin Books 1971) (1853).
- HAROLD W. FUSON, JR., TELLING IT ALL: A LEGAL GUIDE TO THE EXERCISE OF FREE SPEECH 57-58 (1995).
When citing a single volume of multivolume work, give only author(s) of volume cited. Include volume number, if any, at beginning of citation.
- A. LEO LEVIN & MEYER KRAMER, NEW PROVISIONS IN THE KETUBAH: A LEGAL OPINION 3-4 (1955).
If title page establishes an alternative relationship between the two authors, e.g., "WITH" or "AS TOLD TO," use this phrase to separate authors' names.
- EARVIN "MAGIC" JOHNSON WITH WILLIAM NOVAK, MY LIFE 39 (1993).
- A. LEO LEVIN ET AL., DISPUTE RESOLUTION DEVICES IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY 77 (1985).
- 14 CHARLES ALAN WRIGHT, ARTHUR R. MILLER & EDWARD H. COOPER, FEDERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 3637 (3d ed. 1998).
- CITY OF NEW HAVEN, RECYCLE NOW NEW HAVEN (1991).
When no individual author is credited, use smallest subdivision that prepared the work and then the overall body of which that subdivision is a part.
- STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CTR., STATE CRIME COMM'N, CRIME IN GEOGRIA 41 (1980).
When individual author is credit on behalf of an institution, use individual's name and then only largest institutional division, unless smaller unit is particularly relevant.
- CONSUMER DEPUTY PROGRAM, U.S. CONSUMER PROD. SAFETY COMM'N, CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR 7 (1975).
- NAT'l MUN. LEAGUE, A MODEL ELECTION SYSTEM 3 (1973).
- MICHEL FOUCAULT, DISCIPLINE AND PUNISH 30-31 (Alan Sheridan trans., Vintage Books 2d ed. 1995) (1977).
- AIDS AND THE LAW (Harlton L. Dalton et al. eds., 1987).
- KARL MARX & FREDERICH ENGELS, THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (Joseph Katz ed., Samuel Moore trans., Washington Square Press 1964) (1848).
- THE ROLE OF MEDIATION IN DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS 33 (Vt. Law Sch. Dispute Resolution Project ed., 1987).
- THE BLUEBOOK: A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION (Columbia Law Review Ass'n et al. eds., 18th ed. 2005).
- CAPITAL FLOWS IN THE APEC REGION (Moshin S. Khan & Carmen M. Reinhart eds., 1995).
If vol. of multivol. work, give title of volume cited.
If title ends with numeral (or confusing), use comma and "at."
- J.A.S. GRENVILLE, THE MAJOR INTERNATIONAL TREATIES, 1914-1973, at 114-15 (1974)
- DEBORAH L. RHODE, JUSTICE AND GENDER 56 (1989).
If printing differs in respect relevant to purposes of citation, give printing designation and date of printing instead.
- (6th prtg. 1980).
If title of work incorporates date of work, don't omit date of publication, even if it's same date.
- FLEMING JAMES, JR. ET AL., CIVIL PROCEDURE § 2.3 (4th ed. 1992).
- 1 WILLIAM MEADE FLETCHER ET AL., FLETCHER CYCLOPEDIA OF THE LAW OF PRIVATE CORPORATIONS § 7.05 (perm. ed., rev. vol. 1999).
- CHARLES DICKENS, BLEAK HOUSE 49-55 (Norman Page ed., Penguin Books 1971) (1853).
- THE CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE ¶ 8.191 (15th ed. 2003).
- JOHN C.H. WU, THE GOLDEN AGE OF ZEN 214-15 (Image Books 1996) (1975).
- PAUL W. GATES, HISTORY OF PUBLIC LAND LAW DEVELOPMENT 1 (photo. reprint 1979) (1968).
- JOHN LOCKE, TWO TREATISES OF GOVERNMENT 137-39 (Peter Laslett ed., Cambridge Univ. Press 1988) (1690).
If there's no modern edition, cite first edition whenever possible. If pre-1900 edition, indicate place of publication and publisher, separated by comma.
- 1 JAMES F. STEPHEN, A HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW OF ENGLAND 156-57 (London, MacMillan 1883).
If place/date of publication is unavailable, use abbreviation "n.p." for "no place" or "n.d." for "no date."
- 4 SYDNEY C. SCHWEITZER & JOSEPH RASCH, CYCLOPEDIA OF TRIAL PRACTICE § 895 (2d ed. Supp. 1984).
- Kay Deaux & Brenda Major, A Social-Psychological Model of Gender, in THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL DIFFERENCE 89, 89 (Deborah L. Rhode ed., 1990).
- OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, Law in Science and Science in Law, in COLLECTED LEGAL PAPERS 210, 210 (1920).
- ADRIENNE RICH, Transcendental Etude, in THE FACT OF A DOORFRAME 264, 267-68 (1984).
- DAVID RAMSAY, AN ADDRESS TO THE FREEMEN OF SOUTH CAROLINA, ON THE SUBJECT OF THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION (1788), reprinted in PAMPHLETS ON THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, PUBLISHED DURING ITS DISCUSSION BY THE PEOPLE, 1787-1788, at 385 (Paul L. Ford ed., Da Capo Press 1968) (1888).
- John Adams, Argument and Report, in 2 LEGAL PAPERS OF JOHN ADAMS 285, 322-35 (L. Kinvin Wroth & Hitler B. Zobel eds., 1965).
- L. Maria Child, Introduction to HARRIET A. JACOBS, INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL 3, 3-4 (L. Maria Child & Jean F. Yellin eds., Harvard Univ. Press 1987) (1861).
- Henry M. Hart & Herbert Wechsler, Preface to the First Edition of PAUL M. BATOR ET AL., HART AND WECHSLER'S THE FEDERAL COURTS AND THE FEDERAL SYSTEM, at xxvii, xxx (3d ed. 1988).
Cite to similar material by author of the work without special designation.
- JOHN HART ELY, DEMOCRACY AND DISTRUST, at vii (1980).
- BUREAU OF INTELLIGENCE & RESEARCH, U.S. DEP'T OF STATE, PUB. NO. 8732, WORLD STRENGTH OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY ORGANIZATIONS 65 (1973).
- WOMEN'S BUREAU, U.S. DEP'T OF LABOR, LEAFLET NO. 55, A WORKING WOMAN'S GUIDE TO HER JOB RIGHTS 4 (1978).
- Anne C. Vladeck, Counseling a Plaintiff During Litigation, in EMPLOYMENT LITIGATION 1990, at 77, 80-82 (PLI Litig. & Admin. Practice, Course Handbook Series No. 386, 1990).
- BALLENTINE'S LAW DICTIONARY 1190 (3d ed. 1969).
- BLACK'S LAW DICTIONARY 712 (7th ed. 1999).
- 88 C.J.S. Trial § 192 (1955).
- 17 AM. JUR. 2D Contracts § 74 (1964).
- 2 WILLIAM BLACKSTONE, COMMENTARIES *152, *155-56.
- THE FEDERALIST NO. 23 (Alexander Hamilton).
Group together papers written by the same author.
- THE FEDERALIST NOS. 23, 78 (Alexander Hamilton), NOS. 10, 51 (James Madison).
When citing particular material within a paper, however, list usual publication information for edition cited.
- THE FEDERALIST NO. 5, at 53 (John Jay) (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1961).
- MANUAL FOR COMPLEX LITIGATION (THIRD) § 33.2 (1995).
- MANUAL FOR COMPLEX LITIGATION § 2.10 (5th ed. 1982).
- 2 Kings 12:19.
Version may be indicated parenthetically if relevant.
- Mark 9:21 (King James).
- WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, THE SECOND PART OF KING HENRY THE SIXTH act 2, sc. 2.
To cite specific lines, a specific edition should be indicated per Rule 15.4.
- THE BLUEBOOK: A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION R. 1.4(e), at 50 (Columbia Law Review Ass'n et al. eds., 18th ed. 2005).
- THE BLUEBOOK: A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF CITATION 293 tbl.T.10 (Columbia Law Review Ass'n et al. eds., 16th ed. 9th prtg. 1999).
Generally, follow Rule 4. But for shorter work in collection or collection as a whole:
Fully cited shorter work within volume: may use id. for shorter work if it was cited as immediately preceding authority in same footnote or as sole authority within immediately preceding footnote. Otherwise use supra.
Don't use id. for collection as whole when citing another shorter work within collection. Use supra, instead (with title, not author).
- Robert J. Samuelson, A Slow Fix for the Banks, NEWSWEEK, Feb. 18, 2991, at 55.
- Seth Mydans, Los Angeles Police Chief Removed for 60 Days in Inquiry on Beating, N.Y. TIMES, Apr. 5, 1991, at A1.
- Kim Lane Scheppele, Foreword: Telling Stories, 87 MICH. L. REV. 2073, 2082 (1989).
- Paul Butler et al., Race, Law and Justice: The Rehnquist Court and the American Dilemma, 45 AM. U. L. REV. 567, 569 (1996).
- Peter Carlson, Tales Out of Law School; Repeat After Us: It's Nothing Like 'L.A. Law,' WASH. POST, July 2, 1989, (Magazine), at W13.
- Edward B. Rock, The Logic and (Uncertain) Significance of Institutional Shareholder Activism, 79 GEO. L.J. 445 (1991).
When title contains reference to material that would be italicized when appearing in main text per Rule 2.2, such material should appear in ordinary roman type.
- David Rudovsky, Police Abuse: Can the Violence Be Contained?, 27 HARV. C.R.-C.L. L. REV. 465, 500 (1992).
If journal special issue, indicate parenthetically.
- John Ferejohn & Charles Shipan, Congressional Influence on Bureaucracy, 6 J.L. ECON. & ORG. (SPECIAL ISSUE) 1 (1990).
If no vol. #, use yr. of pub. as vol. #, omit yr. parenthetical.
- Barbara Ward, Progress for a Small Planet, HARV. BUS. REV., Sept.-Oct. 1979, at 89, 90.
- Damages for a Deadly Cloud: The Bhopal Tragedy Will Cost Union Carbide $470 Million, TIME, Feb. 27, 1989, at 53.
But, (i) when appropriate, designate work as "Editorial," "Op-Ed.," or "Letter to the Editor," after author and before title; (ii) after date, give designation of section in which piece is found if helpful; (iii) give only first page of piece, not location of specific material.
Include author's full name if available..
- Cop Shoots Tire, Halts Stolen Car, S.F. CHRON., Oct. 10, 1975, at 43.
- Editorial, Pricing Drug, WASH. POST, Feb. 17, 2004, at A1.
- Trial Judge Will Not Give Enquiry Evidence, TIMES (London), June 13, 1990, at 3.
- Nancy Johnson, Letter to the Editor, CHRON. HIGHER EDUC. (Wash., D.C.), Oct. 8, 2004, at A55.
- New York County Lawyers Association: Edwin M. Otterbourg To Represent the Association in House of Delegates of American Bar Association, 124 N.Y. L.J. 1221 (1950).
- Colin S. Diver, Second Governance and Sound Law, 89 MICH. L. REV. 1436 (1991) (reviewing CHRISTOPHER F. EDLEY, JR., ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: RETHINKING JUDICIAL CONTROL OF BUREAUCRACY (1990)).
If untitled, title "Book Review."
Student-signed even if just contributing. Initials = not.
- B. George Ballman, Jr., Note, Amended Rule 6.1: Another Move Towards Mandatory Pro Bono? Is That What We Want?, 7 GEO. J. LEGAL ETHICS 1139, 1162 n.155 (1994).
Shorter commentary such as "Case Note" w/ no title - author then desig
- Note, The Death of a Lawyer, 56 COLUM. L. REV. 606 (1956).
- Case Comment, Evidentiary Use of a Criminal Defendant's Reading Habits and Political Conversations: United States v. Giese, 98 HARV. L. REV. 419, 425-27 (1979).
If no separable designation, italicize entire title.
- The Supreme Court, 1998 Term - Leading Cases, 113 HARV. L. REV. 368, 378 n.60 (1999).
- Nathaniel A. Vitan, Book Note, Irons vs. Rehnquist: A Critical Review of Peter Irons' Brennan vs. Rehnquist, 12 J.L. & POL. 141 (1995).
If unsigned, same manner as other unsigned student works with parenthetical citing work under review if relevant.
- Symposium, Changing Images of the State, 107 HARV. L. REV. 1179 (1994).
If article's part of survey of law of one jdx, title of article should incorporate title of survey as follows:
- Alain A. Levasseur, Sales, The Work of the Louisiana Appellate Courts for the 1977-1978 Term, 39 LA. L. REV. 705 (1999).
Cite ind. article w/in like any article.
- Alvin C. Warren, Jr., Commentary, Financial Contract Innovation and Income Tax Policy, 107 HARV. L. REV. 460 (1993).
- Sandra Day O'Connor, Dedication, Lending Light to Countless Lamps: A Tribute to Judge Norma Levy Shapiro, 152 U. PA. L. REV. 1 (2003).
- Harlan F. Stone, The Equitable Rights and Liabilities of Strangers to a Contract (pts. 1 & 2), 18 COLUM. L. REV. 291 (1918), 19 COLUM. L. REV. 177 (1919).
If all parts appear in 1 vol., use shortened form:
- L.L. Fuller, Legal Fictions (pts. 1-3), 25 ILL. L. REV. 363, 513, 877 (1930-1931).
- William B. Johnson, Annotation, Use of Plea Bargain or Grant of Immunity as Improper Vouching for Credibility of Witness in Federal Cases, 76 A.L.R. FED. 409 (1986).
If volumes are unnumbered, use either # of institute (or proceedings) or yr. of publication as vol. #; in latter case, omit parenthetical reference to year.
- David J. Beck, Crude Oil Issues, 30 INST. ON OIL & GAS L. & TAX'N 1 (1979).
If publication organized by ¶ or § numbers, use those in citation.
- Max Gutierrez, Estate Planning, 13 INST. ON EST. PLAN ¶ 1600 (1979).
To cite part of article id'd by ¶ or § number, cite both first # of article and # appears; add pg if helps.
- Recent Grants, FCD UPDATE (Found. for Child Dev., New York, N.Y.), Dec. 1990, at 1, 7.
- Id. at 3437.
Supra is as usual.
- See, e.g., Bruce Ackerman, Robert Bork's Grand Inquisition, 99 YALE L.J. 1419 (1990) (book review). Compare id. (arguing against constitutional transformation by judicial appointment), with Book Note, Manual Labor, Chicago Style, 101 HARV. L. REV. 1323 (1988).
- Ackerman, supra note 5, at 1425.
- Anatoliy Bizhko, Capitalism and Democracy 25 (Feb. 29, 2000) (unpublished manuscript, on file with The Yale Law Journal).
Use this format for student comments/notes unpublished with second parenthetical indicating type of work.
- Barbara G. Ryder, Incremental Data Flow Analysis Based on a Unified Model of Elimination Algorithms (Aug. 15, 1982) (unpublished Ph.D dissertation, Rutgers University) (on file with author).
- Letter from Pierre Arsen, Executive Editor, Harvard Law Review, to Bryan Killian, Supreme Court Chair, Harvard Law Review (Apr. 2, 2004) (on file with the Yale Law School Library).
- Press Release, Screen Actors Guild, Screen Actors Guild Hails Passage of California Privacy Law (Sept. 30, 1998) (on file with author).
To cite letter written to author of work in which letter is being cited, use "to author."
- Interview with Patricia Keane, Editor-in-Chief, UCLA Law Review, in L.A., Cal. (Mar. 2, 2000).
- Telephone Interview with John J. Farrell, Senior Partner, Hild (Nov. 11, 1999).
When author hasn't personally conducted interview, give name of interviewer.
- Interview by Lauren Eisen with Shane Spradlin, CEO, Nextel Communications, in Potomac, Md. (Mar. 1, 2000).
- Bradley Smith, Chairman, Fed. Election Comm'n, Keynote Address at the University of Pennsylvania Law Review Symposium: The Law of Democracy (Feb. 6, 2004).
If no title of speech, provide description with id info.
- Senator Hubert Humphrey, Address at the Harvard Law Review Annual Banquet (Mar. 29, 1958).
- Herbert Wechsler, Remarks at the Meeting of the Bar of the Supreme Court of the United States in Memory of Chief Justice Stone 5 (Nov. 12, 1947) (transcript available in the Columbia Law Library).
If published, use in form per Rules 1.6 and 15.5.
- James A. Baker, U.S. Sec'y of State, Principles and Pragmatism, Address Before the American-Israeli Public Affairs Committee (May 22, 1989), in DEP'T ST. BULL, July 1989, at 24-25.
- SARAH BARRINGER GORDON, THE TWIN RELICS OF BARBARISM (forthcoming 2001).
To cite particular pg, add 2nd parenthetical with manuscript pg. cite and location.
- Brandon Baer, We're Low on Vermouth, 1 J.L. & OPPRESSION (forthcoming 2001) (manuscript at 3, on file with authors).
- Alan J. Auerbach, National Savings, Economic Welfare, and the Structure of Taxation 24-33 (Nat'l Bureau of Econ. Research, Working Paper No. 729, 1981).
- Richard Briff, The Political Parties 16-17 (Columbia Law Sch. Pub. Law & Legal Theory Working Paper Group, Paper No. 12, 2000), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=223729.
- See Oetken, supra note 2 (manuscript at 15); Davis, supra note 2, at 12.
But, may use electronic source as parallel cite if it substantially improves access. First cite to printed source, then available at and electronic source. Content of electronic source must be identical.
- Gibbs v. Frank, No. 02-3924, 2004 U.S. App. LEXIS 21357, at *18 (3d Cir. Oct. 14, 2004).
- Shelton v. Perz, No. B171606, 2004 WL 2163741, at *1 (Cal. Sept. 28, 2004).
If database name unclear from identifier, include it parenthetically at end of cite.
- CAL. BUS. & PROF. CODE § 1670 (Deering, LEXIS through 1995 Sess.).
- WIS. STAT. ANN. § 19.43 (West, Westlaw through 1995 Act 26).
- WASH. CONST. art. I, § 2
- FTC Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. § 444.1 (2000), WL 16 CFR s 444.1
- 39 Op. Att'y Gen. 484 (1940), 1940 US AG LEXIS 16.
- Justice Minister Calls for Solving Int'l Legal Conflicts, JAPAN ECON. NEWSWIRE PLUS, Apr. 22, 1991, at 1, available at DIALOG, File No. 612.
- T.R. Fehrenbach, TV's Alamo Tale Fairly Accurate, SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS, Mar. 17, 1996, at A1, available at 1996 WL 2824823.
Give direct URL. Sometimes, URLs are too long: then give root URL of site, followed by parenthetical with access instructions (unless such steps would be very long).
- http://fjsrc.urban.org/noframe/wqs/q_data_1.htm#2001 (follow "2001: AOUSC out" hyperlink; then follow "Offenses: TTSECMSO" hyperlink).
- Yahoo! Home Page, http://www.yahoo.com.
- Not: Yahoo! Home Page, http://www1.yahoo.com.
- HEIDI GOLDBERG, CTR. ON BUDGET & POLICY PRIORITIES, STATE AND COUNTY SUPPORTED CAR OWNERSHIP PROGRAMS 1 (2001), http://www.cbpp.org/11-8-01wel.pdf.
- Letter from John Brady, U.S. Diplomat, to Colin Powell, U.S. Sec'y of State (Feb. 27, 2003) (on file with author), available at http://www.truthout.org.
- Not: Letter from John Brady, U.S. Diplomat, to Colin Powell, U.S. Sec'y of State (on file with author), available at http://www.truthout.org (last modified Jan. 15, 2004).
- Polly Price, Precedent and Judicial Power, 42 B.C. L. REV. 81, 84 (2000) (emphasis added) (citing GUIDO CALABRESI, A COMMON LAW FOR THE AGE OF STATUTES 4 (1982)), available at http://www.bc.edu/schools/law/lawreviews/42_1/02_FMS.htm (discussing precedent in the context of statutory construction).
- Yonatan Lupu, The Wiretap Act and Web Monitoring: A Breakthrough for Privacy Rights?, 9 VA. J.L. & TECH. 3, ¶ 7 (2004), http://ww.vjolt.net/vol9/issue1/v9i1_ao3-Lupu.pdf.
If Internet source also is in unavailable printed format or has close analogue in printed medium, use typeface of printed source (e.g., italicize article).
- Douglas Ganten, Mad Cows Come Home, SLATE, Jan. 5, 2004, http://slate.msn.com
- Antonin Scalia: 10 of Hearts, http://www.deal-with-it.org/hearts/scalia.htm (last visited Sept. 28, 2004).
- Not: Deal-With-It.org | The Cards | Antonin Scalia, http://www (and so on).
If no author, can use title if it clearly ids site. But if nothing particular, may give description of site.
If PDF, etc. used, use pincites where appropriate.
Use date that pertains to material cited (not overall site). When material is otherwise undated, give last visited date in parenthetical after URL.
Don't give location of archival copy of citation (e.g., "on file with author").
- E-mail from Mary Prince, Associate Director, Vanderbilt Law Library, to Edward Brewer, Professor of Law, Salmon Chase College of Law (Sept. 26, 1999, 06:15:08 CST) (on file with author).
- Posting of Archie Leach, firstname.lastname@example.org, to Art-Law@zealot.org (Apr. 14, 2000) (on file with author).
Discussion forums too, but include URL and don't include author's email.
- Posting of Pokey Woulda Had It to http://forums.fark.com/cgi/fark/comments.pl?IDLink=112788 (Sept. 17, 2004, 12:57:36 EST).
Blogs: title before URL. If only one poster, cite as web page but include date and time-stamp. If multiple, discussion forum.
- 46 C.F.R § 57.105(a) (West LawDesk Code of Federal Regulations CD-ROM, current through July 1, 1999).
- 7 LAWRENCE P. KING, COLLIER ON BANKRUPTCY ¶ 700.02 (Matthew Bender Authority Bankruptcy Law CD-ROM, rel. 13, Aug. 1999).
- S. 1237, 99th Cong. § 505 (1985), microformed on Sup. Docs. No. Y 1.4/1:99-1237 (U.S. Gov't Printing Office).
- Law & Order: Tabula Rasa (NBC television broadcast Apr. 21, 1999).
Cite vid. mats. containing imgs that haven't been commercially displayed/broadcast by medium of material, title of video or DVD (if any), name of person/inst. that produced video, and yr of prod.
- DVD: 2004 Yale Law Revue (Yale Media Services 2004) (on file with author).
- THE BEATLES, SGT. PEPPER'S LONELY HEARTS CLUB BAND (Capitol Records 1990) (1967).
If particular song/musical work is referred to, cite it by analogy to shorter works in collection per Rule 15.5.
- DON HENLEY, The Boys of Summer, on BUILDING THE PERFECT BEAST (Geffen Records 1984).
- Audio tape: Conference on Business Opportunities in Space, held by the Center for Space Policy, Inc., and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (Mar. 3-5, 1986) (on file with author).
- Int'l Snowmobile, 2004 WL 2337372, at *3.
- Chavez, 2004 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 11266, at *5 n.3.
- See Douglas Gantenbeing, Mad Cows Come Home, SLATE, Jan. 5, 2004, http://slate.msn.com/2093396/.
- Pfizer, Inc., http://www.pfizer.com/main.html (last visited Jan. 17, 2004).
- Gantenbein, supra note 1; Pfizer, Inc., supra note 2.
- MEAT LOAF, For Crying Out Loud, on BAT OUT OF HELL (Epic Records 1977).
- MEAT LOAF, supra note 6.
- In re Smithfield Estates, Inc., [1985-1986 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) ¶ 70,707 (Bankr. D.R.I. Aug. 9, 1985).
If looseleaf material will eventually be bound, add name of bound form in parentheses if it's diff from name of looseleaf form. Include vol. of bound if available.
- Marietta Concrete Co., 3 Lab. Rel. Rep. (BNA) (84 Lab. Arb. Rep.) 1158 (May 7, 1985).
- 5 Trade Reg. Rep.
- 1979-1 Trade Cas.
-  8 Stand. Fed. Tax Rep.
In citing transfer binder, volume designation should indicate years of material included in that binder.
- [1994-1995 Transfer Binder] Fed. Sec. L. Rep.
- 4 Lab. L. Rep. (CCH) ¶ 9046.
-  12 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. Law Inst.).
- Rhode Island Insurance Agents Agree Not To Rig Bids, [Jan.-June] Antitrust & Trade Reg. Rep. (BNA) No. 967, at D-11 (June 5, 1980).
- Defenders of Wildlife, Inc. v. Watt,  12 Envtl. L. Rep. (Envtl. Law Inst.) 20,210 (D.D.C. May 28, 1981).
If statute/reg, give exact date of enactment or promulgation unless such is indicated elsewhere in cite.
- Act of Sept. 25, 1980, Food Drug Cosm. L. Rep. (CCH) ¶ 653.
If other materials, give exact date if available. If undated, give date of page material (or sub§) is printed on.
- In re Looney, [1987-1989 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) ¶ 72,447, at 93,590 (Bankr. W.D. Va. Sept. 9, 1988).
- In re Looney, [1987-1989 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) at 93,591.
- This was the approach taken in Looney. See [1987-1989 Transfer Binder] Bankr. L. Rep. (CCH) ¶ 72,447.
- The Labor Procedure Act (R.C.L. 1990, 922) (Spain).
- Berry v. Dorsey, (1975) 101 A.L.R. 35 (Austl.).
- Guthrie v. Huff,  2 N.Z.L.R. 40.
Give title in original foreign language (in full). May follow with  shortened/full length English title in same typeface.
Give full name of reporter/code/statute, etc., then give abbreviation in .
- BURGERLICHES GESETZBUCH [BGB] art. 13 (F.R.G.).
For non-roman-alphabet language, transliterate.
May give reprint translation per Rule 1.6.
- BGHZ 54, 366 (F.R.G.), translated in 34 I.L.M. 975 (1995).
If reporter doesn't clearly indicate court deciding case, id parenthetically.
- R v. Lockwood, (1782) 99 Eng. Rep. 379 (K.B.).
But if court is highest of jdx, only jdx needs to be id'd unless jdx is otherwise clear from context/other elements of cite.
- Weed v. Powell,  S.C.R. 354 (Can.).
- Guthrie v. Huff,  2 N.Z.L.R. 40.
Court name: if not otherwise clear from context, include English translation of court desig.
- Entscheidungen [BGHZ] [Supreme Court] 53, 125 (126) (F.R.G.).
Annotations to civil law cases are cited per Rule 3.4.
- Cass. 1e civ., Dec. 14, 1982, D. 1983 p. 416, note Aynes (Fr.).
- GRUNDGESETZ [GG] [Constitution] art. 51 (F.R.G.).
- Extradition Law, 1954, 8 L.S.I. 144 (1953-54) (Isr.).
Otherwise, cite like statutes of England (Table T.2), noting jdx parenthetically at end of cite if not otherwise clear from context.
- Emergency Powers Act, No. 3 (1976) (Ir.).
- CODE CIVIL [C. CIV.] atr. 1112 (Fr.).
Give publisher/editor and date of privately published sources only when citing annotation rather than code.
- CODE CIVIL [C. CIV.] art. 1098 (64th ed. Petits Codes Dalloz 1965) (Fr.).
- Catherine Riou, La filiation et la medcine moderne, 38 REVUE INTERNATIONALE DE DROIT COPMARE [R.I.D.C.] 419 (1986) (Fr.).
Cite foreign newspapers per Rule 16.5.
- Marianne Kearney, Indonesia Risks Becoming Like Balkans: Mega, STRAITS TIMES (Sing.), Oct. 29, 2001, at 3.
Cite foreign language periodicals per Rule 16 as modified by Rule 20.2.
Constitutions: don't use short form other than id. But jdx may be omitted if clear from context even if it was required in previous citation.
Statutes: use analogous to short forms in Rule 12.9.
Periodicals: use analogous to short forms in Rule 16.7.
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