primary means of expression & is essential feature of unique human attribute known as speech.
What does your voice show?
reflects gender, personality, personal habits, age, and general condition of health
Can your voice be an emotional outlet that mirrors your moods, attitudes, and general feels?
What is key to successful operatic performance?
evoking emotional responces from listeners through controlled vocal expression
What does your voice do?
It is a powerful tool that delivers a message and simultaneously adds to the meaning of that message.
What is Pitch of the voice?
the perceptual counterpart to fundamental frequency associated with the speed of vocal fold vibration.
What happens when the speed of the vocal fold vibration increases?
the perceived pitch of the voice increases.
What is fundamental frequency of the voice?
the speed at which the vocal folds vibrate
what is frequency measured in?
hertz (Hz) or the number of complete vibrations per second.
The fundamental frequency varies on the voice during speaking, but does each individual speaker have an average fundamental frequency? Whats another name for it if so?
yes also known as habitual pitch
what is optimal pitch level?
It is a suitable pitch level that is determined by vocal fold structure.
men have a fundamental freq. of around 130 Hz (open & close 130 times per second)
women are around 250 Hz. Therefor men avg lower than perceived pitch of female voices.
What is childrens fundamental frequency?
500 Hz and is resulting in very high pitched voice.
what is a monotone voice?
result of not varying the habitual speaking frequency during speech production.
How does one change the pitch of the voice?
modification in the length & tension of the vocal folds are necessary to produce pitch change
Is changing vocal loudness also necessary for adequate communication?
What is vocal loudness?
It is the perceptual correlate of intensity which is measure in decibels (dB)
What happens when the vocal intensity increases?
the perceived loudness of the voice increases
What is the level of decibels at the dinner table?
around 60 dB
What age does voice disorders affect people?
Disordered voices production involves what and signify what?
involves deviations in voice quality, pitch, loudness and flexibility
signify illness and or interfere with communication
Which men or women are more common to be affected with voice disorder?
What are the 5 perceptual signs of voice categories?
pitch, loudness, quality, nonphonatory behaviors, and aphonia or the absence of phonation.
What are the three aspects of pitch suggestion voice disorder?
monopitch, inappropriate pitch and pitch breaks
what is monopitch?
when the voice lacks normal inflectional variation and in some instances the ability to change pitch voluntarily. It may be a sign of neurological impairment or a psychiatric disability or it may simply reflect the person's personality.
What is inappropriate pitch
It refers to the voice that is judged to be outside the normal range of pitch for age & or sex. If it is too high it may indicate underdevelopment of the larynx & vocal pitch is excessively low may be related to endocrinological problems such as hypothyroidism.
What is pitch breaks?
sudden uncontrolled upward/downward changes in pitch. They're common among young men who are going through puberty. Usually resolves over time.
What is loudness?
The perceptual correlate of vocal intensity.
what are 2 aspects related to vocal loudness that may indicate a voice disorder?
monoloudness and loudness variations
What is monoloudness?
lack normal variations of intensity that occur during speech & may be an inability to change vocal loudness voluntarily. It may be a reflection of neurological impairment/psychiatric disability or merely a habit associate w the persons personality
What is loudness variations?
extreme variations in vocal intensity in which the voice is either too soft or loud for the particular speaking situation;inability to control vocal loudness may reflect a loss of neural control of respiratory/laryngeal mechanism. Psychological problems may contribute to abnormal variations in vocal loudness.
Several perceptual characteristics of voice that relate to vocal quality are?
hoarseness/roughness, breathiness, vocal tremor, strain and struggle.
What is hoarseness/roughness?
voice lacks clarity & the voice is noisy. Also can be a temporary condition that results from minor forms of vocal misuse or abuse that produce vocal fold swelling called EDEMA
What is breathiness?
perception of audible air escaping through the glottis during phonation. can lead to impairment
What is vocal tremor?
usually an indication of loss of central nervous system control over the laryngeal mechanism
What is strain & struggle?
behaviors related to difficulties initiating and maintaining voice. They are usually related to neurological impairment, but psychological problem may also cause them.
what is stridor?
noisy breathing or involuntary sound that accompanies inspiration and expiration. It is indicative of a narrowing somewhere in the airway. Always abnormal & serious because its presence represents a blockage of airway.
Why do we clear our throats excessively?
attempt to clear mucus from the vocal folds. it is normal behavior to clear throat but it is considered abnormal when it occurs with excessive frequency.
What is consistent aphonia?
the persistent absence of voice & perceived as whispering. Aphonia may be related to vocal fold paralysis, disorder of the central nervous system or psychological problems
What is episodic aphonia?
uncontrolled, unpredictable aphonic breaks in voice that can last for a fraction of a second or longer.
what are vocal misuse and abuse?
freq. claimed to contribute to structural damage of vocal fold tissue;Misuse: abrupt voicing onsets, high laryngeal position, lack of pitch variability. Abuse: screaming or yelling, excessive use of alcohol, excessive throat clearing & coughing.
What are vocal nodules?
common vocal fold pathology that is secondary to vocal misuse/abuse. nodules are localized growths on the vocal folds resulting from frequent hard vocal fold collision that occur. Occur more in women of 20-50 yrs. sore throat feeling
What are contact ulcers?
reddened ulcerations that develop on the posterior surface of the vocal folds in the region of the arytenoid cartilages. like vocal nodules are bilateral but are painful. may go to the ear. Known to be hoarseness and breathiness voice symptoms.
What are vocal polyps?
like vocal nodules caused by trauma to the vocal folds associated w. vocal misuse/abuse. Develop when blood vessels in vocal folds rupture & swell.
Whats a sessile polyp?
closely adhering or attached to vocal fold tissue. can cover up to two thirds of vocal fold.
what is pedunculated polyp?
appears to be attached to vocal fold by means of a stalk & can be found on the free margins of vocal folds as well as on upper & lower surfaces of folds.
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