Nutrition Through the Life Cycle January 27th reading pgs 2-29 essential nutrients- substances required for growth and health that cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained from diet non-essential nutrients- can be produced by the body from other components of the diet intake standards are called DRIs (new nutrient standards for healthy people) RDAs (recommended dietary allowances)- levels of nutrient intake adequete to meet needs of all healthy people while decreasing risk of certain chronic diseases AI (adequete intake)- ?tentative? RDAs EAR (estimated average requirements)- meet the requirements of half of healthy ppl and used to assess intake adequacy in population groups UL- Tolerable Uppper Intake- daily levels of nutrient intake that should not be exceeded carbs- need 45-65% of diet added sugars- no more than 25% fiber- 21-25 for females, 30-38g for males protein- essential amino acids- nine- must be provided by the diet need 10-35% from protein fats- fatty acids attached to glycerol essential fatty acids: linoleic acid and alpha- linoleic acid biologically active derivatives- prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and prostacyclins prostaglandins- perform functions such as constriction/dilation of blood vessels, and stimulation of smooth muscles and the uterus thromboxanes- produced in platelets and promote blood clotting, constrict vessels, and increase bp prostacyclins- produced by blood vessel walls that inhibit platelet aggregation and blood clotting, dilate blood vessels, and reduce bp linoleic acid parent of omega 6 fatty acids one major deriv= arachidonic acid, a primary structural component of the central nervous system comes in vegetable oils, meats, and human milk need 17g/day for men and 12 for women alpha-linolenic acid parent of omega 3 fatty acids present in dark green veggies, vegetable oil, and flaxseed derivatives include EPA and DHA small amounts of these are produces from the acid EPA and DHA can also enter body from coldwater fish and human milk EPA and DHA content of fish provides health benefits (against high bp, stroke, plaque in arteries) DHA found in large amounts in CNS, eye retina, and testes rec. 1.6g/day for men and 1.1g/day for women ppl should consume more omega- 3 (should only consume 4X as much omega 6's and omega 3's, and we are at 9:1) saturated fats- no double bonds- usually solids butter, cheese, meats tend to increase blood levels of LDL oils can be hydrogenated- made solid and saturated turned from cis to trans form raise blood LDL- cholesterol levels to a greater extent than saturated fats cholesterol- component of animal membranes, etc precursur of some hormones body only generates 1/3 of the cholesterol we use found in egg yolks, meat, milk, and fats such as butter glycerol- component of fats that is soluble in water, converted to glucose in the body bad fats- trans fats, saturated fats, cholesterol good fats- monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, alpha-linolenic acid, DHA, and EPA 20-35% need less than 200 mg cholesterol/day Vitamins there are thirteen B complex and vit C are soluble in water fat-soluble are ?DEKA? and are stored for a long time, unlike water-soluble ones vitamins can play critical role inn coenzymes and metabolism others are antioxidants, preveting damage caused by exposure to oxidizing agents some substances in plants are called phytochemicals can affect body processes in humans that benefit health Minerals humans require 15 consist of single atoms and carry a charge in solution the charge they carry allow them to combine with other minerals to form stable complexes in bone, teeth, cartilage, and other tissues can stiumalete muscles to contract and nerves to react help body mainatin water in tissues and control acidity of body fluids skipped summary of vitamins- need to know? Water males need 15-16 cups and females need 11 need to memorize minerals? Skipped
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