Fiorina Ch.11 ? Bush vetoed seven bills and congress only over ride him once on a water resources measure. ? The chain of command is a loose one and the president's administrative duties may exceed the capacity of an elected official. Constituencies ? national constituencies: Created by the general election ? The entire nation votes in presidential elections ? Only the president can claim to speak for the country as a whole ? Partisan constituencies: shaped by the presidential primaries ? More extreme issues ? Both play a role in presidential decision making The power to persuade ? Congress cannot check presidential propaganda, only reply to it ? The first vocal president came during the progressive era ? Theodore Roosevelt ? Bully pulpit:Like a preacher, the president could move his congregation to action. ? "Jobs and growth" plan: A cut on the taxes that investors paid on corporate dividends. The power to reccommend ? The constitution encourages the president to recommend for congressional consideration measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient. ? Congress often ignores or modifies presidential recommendations. ? Presidents have the best opportunity to initiate policy in the first months after their election ? This is why most presidents make new proposals at the start of their terms. ? Transition: 75 day period between election day and inaguration ? Honeymoon: first several months of a presidency, when reporters are kinder than usual. The budgetary power ? office of management and budget: originally the Bureau of the budget ? Development of the president's budget ? sets personnel policy and reviews every piece of proposed legislation that the executive branch submits to congress to make sure its consistent with the president's agenda ? The congressional budget office ? Created to counterbalance omb ? Evaluates president's budget The veto power ? The most important formal power is the veto ? Vetoed bills die unless repassed by 2/3 of the senate and house ? Congress usually fails to override the veto If congress enacts a law ten days before it adjourns, the president may exercise a pocket veto ? Not signing the bill into law ? congress has no opportunity to override a pocket veto The appointment power ? The constitution allows the president to appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls ? a majority must approve the nomination ? The cabinet as a whole makes few if any joint decisions Treaty power ? do not take effect without 2/3 senate vote ? Executive agreements: legal contracts with foreign countries that require only a presidential signature The power as commander in chief ? United states vs. Curtiss-Wright ? can congress delegate the president power over arms sales ? The court limited the president's power in a later case ? Youngstown & Tube co.v. Sawyer ? Trade unions in the steel industry ? President's could not use their foreign policy authority to grab power at home. ? The War powers resolution ? Required the president to notify congress at any time u.s troops are sent into harms way. ? Must withdraw within 60 days if congress does not approve Inherent executive power ? Invoked most frequently when making foreign policy ? Executive orders: Directives to government employees that carry the weight of law unless they contradict acts passed by congress. ? Must not violate congressional legislation ? Executive privilege: The right of the president to deny congress information it requests. The impeachment threat ? President's may be impeached by a majority of the house for " high crimes and misdemeanors". ? The president must leave office if the senate convicts by 2/3 vote
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