Exam 4 Chapters 15,16,18,19 Chapter 15: Proteins and Amino Acids 1. Functions of Protein: 1. Integral structural components of skeletal muscle, bone, connective tissues, organs, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hair, fingernails. 2. Major Components of hormones 1. Insulin 3. Tissue maintence and repair due to illness and injuries. 4. Energy source 1. not as significant as carbs or fat 2. Proteins must first be stripped of their nitrogen to be used as energy 2. All protein is continously being turned over, broken down and rebuilt. 1. Utilizes roughly 9 ounces of protein per day. 1. we only consume 2-3 ounces daily 2. The more protein we eat, the more water we need. 2. Most protein used is recycled from muscle and other protein tissues being turned over 3. Amino Acids: 1. The building blocks of proteins are "amino acids" 2. protein consumed in food is broken down by digestive enzymes and absorbed into the bloodstream as amino acids. 1. The organization of amino acids in chains = DNA 2. The arrangement determines whether the protein is an enyme, component of red blood cells, a muscle fiber, or another tissue 3. 9 of the 20 common amino acids are considered essential, 11 and nonessential 1. essential = amino acids that cannot be made good enough and must be consumed by the diet 1. Histidine, Isoleucine,Leucine,Lysine,Methionine,Phenylalanine,Threonine,Tryptophan, Valine 2. inessential = amino acids that can be readily produced 1. Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, glycind, proline, serine, tryosine 4. Complete proteins: 1. Food sources of high quality protein 2. Proteins in this category include those found in animal products such as meat, milk, eggs. 5. Incomplete Proteins: 1. deficient in one or more essential amino acids. 2. proteins in plants are in this category 6. Vegetarian Diets: 1. diets consisting of only plant foods can provide an adequate amount of complete proteins 2. key: eating a variety of complementary sources of protein daily 4. High amounts of amino acids: 1. worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia 2. harden arteries 3. impair fetal and infant development 4. nausea, vomiting, bad breath, constipation. 5. Average intake of protein daily: 75g/day 1. Men RDA = 56 g/day 2. Women RDA = 46 g/day 6. Food Sources of protein: 1. 70% come from meats, fish, milk, other animal products. 2. Dried beans, grain 3. Tuna, shrimp 4. Legumes, cereals vegetables 7. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM): the body will extract what it needs from liver, intestines, heart, muscles, and other organs. 1. Loss of more than 30% leads to 1. reduced strength for breathing, susceptibility to infection, abnormal organ functions, and death. 2. Kwashiorkor and Marasmus: deficient in protein, calories, vitamins, and minerals. 1. children with PEM are easily irritates, apathetic, small, and vulnerable to infection 3. Kwashiorkor(more serious): Predisposition toward abnormal liver and metabolic functions and is accompanied by edema. 1. experience swelling in the arms, legs, and stomach. 2. Children 1-3 years 3. Hair: Dry, brittle, changes color 4. Fatty liver 4. Marasmus(more easily treated): skin-and-bone appearance. Can use proteins from muscle and other tissues to help meet their need for proteins. 1. Chronic food deprivation 2. impairs brain and development learning 3. losing muscle, including heart 4. severe weight loss 8. Too much protein:Diets very high in protein result in death after several weeks 1. weak bones 2. kidney stones 3. cancer 4. heart disease 5. obesity Chapter 16: Vegetarian Diets 1. Reasons for Vegetarianism: 1. Meat and animal products are scarce or too expensive 2. to cause no harm to animals 3. value or religious belief 4. to lose weight 2. Vegetarian Diets Promote: 1. Less weight 2. Less sat. fat 3. high fiber 4. weight control 5. blood pressure 6. cancer rich in antioxidants 3. Types of Vegetarian Diets: 1. Lacto-ovo:milk & eggs 2. Lacto: milk 3. Macro: can go from raw foods to quasi(consuming fish, eggs, milk, and plants) 4. The more restrictive the diet, the more likely for health problems 1. Pregnant people, children, ill, lactation 2. Vitamins to look for: 1. Calcium 2. Vit D 3. Vit B12 4. Iron (Fe) 5. Zinc(Zn) 5. Dietary Guidelines for Well-Planned Vegan Diets: 1. a variety of foods that include grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, oils, fats, and sweets 2. Choose whole, unrefined foods often 3. choose a variety of fruits and vegies 4. choose low-fat dairy products and eggs 5. regular sources of vitamin B12 and D 6. Do not restrict dietary fat in children under 2 years old 1. This provides low amounts of cholesterol, sat fat, high fiber, and adequate amounts of protein and most vitamins and minerals 6. Complementary Protein Foods: 1. beans and rice 2. tofu and rice 3. peanut butter and jelly sandwich 4. corn and lima beans Chapter 18: Fats and Cholesterol in Health 1. Fats as an energy source? 1. each gram of fat supplies the body with 9kcal/g 2. fats provide energy for endurance 2. What are some facts about fats? 1. Fats are not Soluble in water 2. Fats are a subcategory of Lipids 3. What are lipids? 1. Fats 2. Oil 3. Cholesterol 4. Functions of Dietary Fats: 1. Concentrated source of energy 2. Fats increase the flavor and palatability of foods 3. Fats make you feel fuller longer 4. Fats are a component of cell membranes, Vitamin D, and Sex hormones 5. Dietary Fats Carry: 1. Essential Fatty Acids 1. Linolenic Acid 2. Linoleic 2. Fat soluble vitamins 3. other phytochemicals 6. Where is fat located? 1. Visceral - around organs 2. subcutaneous- under the skin 7. What are saturated Fats? 1. Carbons saturdated with hydrogen 2. Saturated Fats tend to be solid at room temperature (animal products) 8. What are unsaturated fats? 1. These tend to be liquid at room temperature (plant sources) 2. There are two types of unsaturated fats: 1. monosaturated fats (1 C-C bond is unsaturated) 2. polysaturated fats (1< C-C bonds are unsaturated) 9. What is an omega-3 fatty acid, where is it located, and what does it do? 1. Linolenic Acid 2. Cell membranes, nerves, eye 3. regulates blood pressure and blood clotting 4. walnuts, flaxseed, canola oil, soybeans 10.What is an omega-6 acid, where is it located, and what does it do? 1. Linoleic Acid 2. Cell membranes, nerves, brain 3. regulates blood pressure and blood clotting 4. sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils 11.DHA 1. Primarily found in fish oils 2. structural component of the brain and retina 12.EPA 1. Primarily found in fish oils 2. precursor in blood pressure, blood clotting, and anti-inflammatory reactions 13.What is inflammation cause? 1. Heart disease 2. type 2 diabetes 3. osteoporosis 4. cancer 5. Alzheimers 6. rheumatoid arthritis 14.What is the adequate intake of DHA and EPA for adults? 1. 650 mg/day 2. consuming 12 ounces of fish weekly 15.What is hydrogenation? 1. Adding hydrogen to liquid unsaturated fats, making them saturated and more solid. 2. This adds to the shelf life, cooking properties, and taste 3. Can turn into Trans fats 16.What is trans fat and what does it do? 1. Trans fat=unsaturated fatty acids with H+ on each side (BAD!) 2. raise blood cholesterol, risk of heart disease,stroke, sudden death from heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and inflammation 17.Where is cholesterol found? 1. only in animal products 2. produced by the liver 18.What are the recommended levels for cholesterol? 1. As little saturated fat and trans fat as possible 2. higher consumption of omega-3 fatty acid. Esp DHA and EPA 19.How much dietary fat is recommended for energy? 1. 20-35% 20.How do you find percentage of calories provided by fat? 1. Grams of fat in given food x 9kcal/g=? 2. ?/number of calories=?? 3. ?? x 100 = total calories from fat 21.Whats is the regulation for high-low cholesterol? 1. Low <200mg 2. Borderline 200-239 3. High >240 Chapter 19: Nutrition and Heart Disease: 1. Heart disease affects men and women equally 2. Heart disease is responsible for how many deaths in the US? 1. 32% 3. Heart disease is responsible for how many deaths in the world? 1. 25% 4. What is heart disease? 1. Inadequate circulation of blood to the heart 5. What is arthersclerosis? 1. Hardening of the arteries due to plaque 2. Narrows passages 3. creates blood clots 4. can occur in any artery 6. An "injury" is anything that can harm or affect something negatively. 7. What causes injuries? 1. High blood cholesterol levels 2. High LDL levels 3. hypertension 4. smoking 5. diabetes/obesity 6. high cholesterol 7. stress 8. How is cholesterol transported? 1. Lipoproteins 9. What is HDL? 1. HDL is the "good cholesterol" because it removes cholesterol from the blood 10.What does HDL do? 1. HDL transports cholesterol to the liver for its excretion from the bod. 11.What is LDL? 1. LDL is the bad cholesterol. This cholesterol can be turned into plaque. 12.What are the recommended amounts of HDL and LDL? 1. HDL >60 mg/dl 2. LDL <100 mg/dl 13.What are uncontrollable risk factors of CVD? 1. Family genes 2. age 3. history 14.What are controllable risk factors of CVD? 1. smoking 2. hypertension 3. physical inactivity 4. LDL level 5. etc. 15.What is Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)? 1. Disorders related to plaque buildup in arteries of the heart, brain, and other organs and tissues. 16.How do you lower the risk of CVD? 1. Replace Kcal with high fiber foods 2. eat more fruits and vegetables 3. regular exercise 4. weight control 5. stop smoking 17.Who should NOT be on a low fat diet? 1. Children <2 years of age 18.What can you do once children are >2? 1. Reduce saturated fat, such as switching from whole milk to 1%
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