FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY BSC 343 Oct. 13, 2009 Exam 3 ? Lect 1 Dr. David P. Daberkow Office: FSA 227 Lab: FSA 220 and 225 Office Hours: T and R from 3:15 to 4:00 P.M., or by appointment. NOT BEFORE CLASS! Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Section IV. Plasticity, Development and Neuroanatomy 15-10/13, 16-10/15, 17-10/20 Functional Neuroanatomy (Appendix A, Ch. 26) 18-10/22, 19-10/27 Development & Construction of Circuits (Ch. 22, 23, 24) 20-10/29, 21-11/3, Plasticity in the Adult Nervous System (Ch. 8) 11/5 Exam 3 (Section IV) Section V. Selected Topics 22-11/10, 23-11/12 Special Topics ? Memory (Ch. 31) 24-11/17 Special Topics ? Movement (Ch. 17, 18) 25-11/19 Special Topics ? Movement (Ch. 17, 18) Thanksgiving Break 11/21-11/29 26- 12/1 Special Topics - Neuropathologies 26-12/3 Special Topics - Neuropathologies 12/7 (@ 3:10pm!) Exam 4 (Section V) Grading Undergraduate Students: Total points = 100. Four exams, each covering approximately one fourth of the course material, are worth 22 points each. Exam 4 is therefore not a comprehensive final exam. Four written assignments (3pts each) will be assigned during the semester. Graduate Students: Total points = 122. Graduate students will be required to take the same four exams as undergraduate students (22 points each) and complete the same written work (12 points). Additionally, a paper worth 22 points will be assigned on a topic related to neurobiology. The paper will be 10 pages double spaced pages plus 15 primary references. A primary reference is a manuscript describing, for the first time, results from original experiments and published in a peer-reviewed journal. A primary reference is not a review article, book, book chapter, Web Page, etc. Topics are open to any area of neurobiology, but please consult the instructor before finalizing your topic. The paper is due the last day of class. Exams: Four exams will be given. Each exam will be part multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and short-answer questions. Plagiarism and Cheating Any act of plagiarism or cheating can result in an F for the course: Plagiarize: ?1. To appropriate and pass off as one?s own?2. To appropriate and use passages, ideas, etc.? (Funk & Wagnalls New International Dictionary of the English Language, World Publishers, Inc., 2000). See also the Student Code of Conduct regarding academic dishonesty: http://www.deanofstudents.ilstu.edu/downloads/crr/code-of-student-conduct.pdf Absences Attendance in lectures is voluntary. However, written documentation is required to make up a missed exam. Make-up exams, if necessary, will be all short answer and essay questions. FUNCTIONAL NEUROANATOMY Oct. 13, 2009 EXAM 3 - LECT 1 I. BASIC SUBDIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM II. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM III. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Outline Basic Subdivisions of the Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Components 1. Ganglia - cell bodies - synapses - support cells 2. Nerves - axon bundles - support cells Peripheral Nervous System Sensory neurons contact specialized receptors in periphery that transduce information about various stimuli relay sensory information from body surface and within body to the CNS synapse in the dorsal root ganglia Peripheral Nervous System Motor neurons - carry motor information from CNS to muscles and viscera (internal organs) TWO DIVISIONS Somatic division Autonomic division Peripheral Nervous System Motor neurons Somatic motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle control of voluntary movement (conscious control) synapse in ventral root ganglia Autonomic motor neurons innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glands control involuntary behavior (i.e., gastric motility, heart rate) directly innervate other motor neurons in autonomic ganglia Autonomic Nervous System Three Divisions: 1. Sympathetic - ?fight or flight? 2. Parasympathetic - ?rest and digest? 3. Enteric - gastrointestinal tract (G.I.) Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic (thoracolumbar division) ?fight or flight? increased heart rate increased resp. rate increase blood flow to skeletal muscles decreased blood flow to G.I. - ganglia next to spinal cord (a long chain) - ?sympathetic chain? or ?chain ganglia? Autonomic Nervous System 2. Parasympathetic (craniosacral division) ?rest and digest? - decreased heart rate decreased resp. rate decreased blood flow to skeletal muscles increased blood flow to G.I. - ganglia located near innervated organs Neurotransmitters of the Autonomic Nervous System Preganglionic Neurons PNS and SNS: cholinergic (ACh) Postganglionic Neurons PNS: cholinergic (ACh) SNS: noradrenergic (NE) Autonomic Nervous System ACh ACh ACh NE Enteric Nervous System Neurons synapse in a complex network of neurons (plexuses) myenteric (Auerbach?s) plexus - gut motility and transport submucus (Meissner?s) plexus - gut secretion Enteric Nervous System Functions: 1. Gut motility 2. Gut secretion 3. Gut transport Neuroanatomical Terminology Neuroanatomical Terminology (anatomical planes) Central Nervous System: Seven Basic Regions Spinal cord Medulla Pons Midbrain Cerebellum Diencephalon Cerebrum Central Nervous System: Regional Terminology Forebrain (Prosencephalon) Telecephalon (anterior portion) - cerebrum and embedded structures (e.g., basal ganglia) 2. Diencephalon (posterior portion) - thalamus and hypothalamus Central Nervous System: Regional Terminology Midbrain (Mesencephalon) Central Nervous System: Regional Terminology Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon) Metencephalon (anterior portion) - cerebellum and pons 2. Myelencephalon (posterior portion) - medulla Central Nervous System: Seven Basic Regions Spinal cord Medulla Pons Midbrain Cerebellum Diencephalon Cerebrum Dorsal Root Ganglion - cell bodies for sensory neuron Sympathetic Ganglion - synapse between pre- and postganglionic neurons of SNS Spinal Cord: Gross Anatomy Spinal Cord: Cross-Sectional Anatomy Dorsal horn - sensory input Ventral horn - motor output Gray Matter - cell bodies - synapses - glia Spinal Cord: Cross-Sectional Anatomy Lateral Column - descending motor information to the ventral horn from the cerebral cortex Dorsal Column - ascending sensory information Ventral Column - descending (motor) and ascending (sensory) information White Matter - fiber tracts Brain Stem Medulla Pons Midbrain MEDULLA superior to spinal cord, inferior to pons control of - respiration - cardiovascular system (heart rate, BP) PONS ?to bridge? massive enlargement superior to medulla, inferior to midbrain relays information - from cerebral hemispheres to cerebellum MIDBRAIN contains ?hills? or colliculi (superior and inferior colliculi) function: - eye movement - essential auditory relay Cerebellum coordination of motor activity, posture and equilibrium reflex modification motor learning Forebrain: Cerebrum and Diencephalon Diencephalon Two key subdivisions: 1. Thalamus 2. Hypothalamus Thalamus ?Relay Center? sensory input to cortex lower brain regions to cortex thalamus Hypothalamus inferior to thalamus integration of ANS emotions control of pituitary gland appetite CEREBRUM (cerebral hemispheres and embedded structures) 1. Cerebral cortex - perception and cognition 2. Basal ganglia - higher motor functions 3. Amygdala - emotional behavior - ?fear center? 4. Hippocampus - memory 5. Basal forebrain nuclei modulate activity in the cerebral cortex Forebrain: Key Regions 1. Frontal - primary motor cortex - higher intellectual processes 2. Parietal primary sensory cortex association areas for speech and language 3. Temporal - primary auditory cortex - hippocampus (memory) 4. Occipital primary visual cortex Cerebral Cortex: Four Lobes Precentral gyrus - primary motor area Postcentral gyrus - primary sensory area Insular cortex - lies beneath the frontal and temporal lobes - involved in visceral and autonomic functions (i.e. taste)
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