The concept of ____________ suggests that as a firm produces more, the average cost of goods produced goes down.
economies of scale
Fayol's _____________ principle states that each worker should report to one, and only one, boss.
unity of command
Fayol's ____________ principle says that tasks should be divided into areas of specialization
division of labor
Fayol's ____________ principle says that workers' attitudes would create an environment of pride and loyalty within an organization.
esprit de corps
The line of authority that moves from the top of a hierarchy to the lowest level is called the
chain of command.
One advantage of a bureaucratic organization is that:
employees know they are expected to follow the rules and regulations.
As a manager of a retail-clothing store, Lance favors detailed job descriptions, formal rules and regulations, detailed records, and standardized procedures. He also believes that staffing and promotion decisions should be based strictly on the qualifications of the people under consideration. Lance's attitudes suggest that he is strongly influenced by the ideas of:
Which of the following determines the degree of decentralization a firm might use?
The degree to which lower level management is empowered to make decisions.
The optimum number of subordinates a manager can supervise is referred to as the:
span of control.
An organization that consists of many layers of management is referred to as a(n) ____________ organization.
The ________ an organization's structure, the ________ the span of control
In recent years, large organizations have tried to improve their efficiency in communication and decision making by:
eliminating several layers of management.
Which of the following is considered to be an advantage of functional departmentalization?
Employee skills can be developed in depth
Which of the following factors help determine a manager's span of control?
The level of standardization of the work and the degree of empowerment that employees have
Organizations that require consistent production standards to help create a high quality public image would tend to favor:
Springfield National Bank organizes its loan operations based on the market served, such as consumer, small business, and nonprofit organizations. Departmentalization based on ________ allows Springfield to better serve borrowers with different needs.
As a response to a rapidly changing marketplace, Idea Electronics found it necessary to reorganize, including a significant downsize of its middle management. This action will likely result in __________
flattening the organization and empowering employees, allowing them to get closer to the customer
n a _____________ organization, specialists from different parts of the organization are brought together on a temporary basis to work on specific projects.
Line-and-staff organizations work well in organizations with:
a relatively unchanging environment.
Matrix organizational structures were first developed in:
the aerospace industry.
Which of the following describes a group of employees from different departments working together on a long-term basis?
Cross-functional self-managed teams
Cross-functional self-managed teams work best when _______________.
leadership is shared
The main difference between a matrix-style organization model and a cross-functional team is:
the matrix model is a temporary arrangement, whereas the cross-functional team is a more permanent arrangement.
Which of the following describes a temporary networked organization made up of replaceable firms that join and leave as needed?
Young people today are often called __________ because they have never known life without the Internet.
Empowering employees to better serve customers requires __________ front-line employees.
more support for
One of the most difficult management challenges today is managing change. This is because:
change requires cooperation and an awareness of a need for change.
For an inverted organization to be effective, it requires:
better educated, better trained, and better paid employees.
One strategy U.S. manufacturers have employed in order to become more competitive is:
elying on advanced technology and the Internet to integrate all the partners and suppliers.
__________ is the specialized area of management that converts or transforms resources into goods and services.
__________ is the creation of goods and services using land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship, and knowledge.
___________ utility is the value added by the creation of finished goods and services using raw materials, components, and other inputs.
In ___________ _________, materials are physically or chemically changed to produce a product.
A(n) __________ _________ puts together components to make a product.
A production process characterized by long production runs to turn out finished goods over time is known as a(n)
A production process characterized by a short production run and frequent adjustments to machines so that different products can be produced is known as a(n):
In the past, the idea behind mass production was to:
make large quantities of products at lower cost and achieve economies of scale
____________ uses computers to help design products
__________ involves computers directly in the production process.
In manufacturing, one way to compete with cheap labor is to:
The goal of lean manufacturing is to:
produce goods and services with less of everything that goes into the process.
A big advantage of computer integrated manufacturing software is that it:
makes it possible to custom-design products to meet the needs of small markets with very little increase in cost.
SitRite Furniture Company uses labor and machinery to transform wood, plastic, metal and cloth into comfortable chairs, sofas, and love seats. This process creates:
__________ is the process of selecting a geographic location for a company's operations.
__________ is the physical arrangement of resources in the production process.
Firms often use a(n) _____________ when working on a major project involving the production of a large item such as an airplane, ship, or bridge
MRP is a technique that helps managers:
make sure that the right parts and materials are available at the right time
___________ is a computer application that enables a firm to combine computerized functions of all divisions and subsidiaries of the firm into a single, integrated software program that uses a single database
Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
With the __________ inventory control system, producers hold only the right amount of materials and parts that they need for a short period of time - sometimes just a few hours.
In today's quality control programs, emphasis is placed on:
achieving customer satisfaction by providing defect-free products.
The six sigma approach to quality control:
detects potential problems early to prevent their occurrence.
____________ examines statistical samples of product components at each stage of the production process and plots the results on a graph in order to spot and correct any variances from desired quality levels.
Statistical process control
The ___________ National Quality Award is given to firms that achieve an outstanding level of overall quality based on performance in seven key areas.
___________ is a set of international standards for quality management and quality assurance
A firm that is certified as meeting both ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 standards has demonstrated
world-class management of both quality and environmental standards.
In a PERT network, the sequence of tasks that takes the longest to complete is called the
he purpose of a PERT network is:
to monitor the progress of a multi-step project during its development to ensure on time completion.
A bar graph that shows what projects or tasks are in process and how much of each is completed is called a(n)
One of the elements essential to Frederick Taylor's approach to improving worker productivity was
rules of work.
______________ was the dominant strategy for improving worker productivity during the early 1900s.
Weldon Taskman has just successfully negotiated a new long-term sales agreement with a major client. The personal satisfaction Weldon has about his efforts is his _______ reward.
Maureen's supervisor was so impressed by her work that he named her the employee of the month. This praise from her supervisor is an example of a(n) _________ reward.
The Hawthorne studies concluded that worker motivation:
improved when employees felt like their ideas were respected.
The most important impact of the Hawthorne studies was that it:
changed the direction of research away from Taylor's scientific management toward the study of human-based management.
The concept that a hierarchy of human needs could be used to explain motivation was developed by:
In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the desire for love and acceptance would fall into the category of:
Maslow would classify the need for recognition from others and for self respect as _________ needs.
Herzberg found that factors that provided the highest level of motivation were mostly associated with:
According to Herzberg, a sense of achievement, earned recognition, and interest in the work itself were all:
According to Herzberg, the difference between motivators and hygiene factors is
verall, motivators related to greater job satisfaction, while hygiene factors made the work place a satisfying place to thrive.
Theory ___ managers see employees as having a general dislike for work and an unwillingness to accept responsibility.
heory ____ assumes that the average person likes work, and has a relatively high degree of imagination and creativity.
The purpose of management by objectives is to:
help employees motivate themselves with a goal-setting model that involves, discussion, review, and evaluation by management and employees.
________ is a system of goal setting and implementation that involves a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middle managers, supervisors, and employees.
Management by objectives
Management by objectives is most effective in organizations that:
are relatively stable
According to __________ the amount of effort employees devote to a task depends on their expectations of the outcome.
According to Victor Vroom, which of the following questions is an employee likely to ask before deciding to exert his or her maximum effort toward completing a task?
Is the reward for completing the task worth the effort involved?
Reprimands, pay reductions, and suspensions are all examples of:
The basic principle of equity theory is that employees try to:
maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to people in similar positions.
A key idea in reinforcement theory is that:
managers can use both rewards and punishment to influence employee behavior.
Managers who advocate job enrichment focus on creating jobs with
Skill variety and autonomy.
he degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of others in the organization is referred to as
The practice of moving employees from one job to another to make work more interesting is called:
The first step toward establishing open communication within an organization is to:
create an organizational culture that rewards listening
The major benefit of open communication in a company setting is:
A strength of Generation X managers is likely to be their:
ability to provide feedback to employees.
As a group, Millennials tend to be:
adaptable, tolerant, and tech savvy.
Baby Boomers as managers need to understand that:
Gen X and Gen Y employees will be motivated by flexibility in the workplace.
_____________ is the process of evaluating human resource needs and then recruiting, selecting, developing, motivating, evaluating, compensating, and scheduling employees to achieve organizational goals.
Human resource management
__________ workers have a higher skill level than their current job requires.
Which of the following statements best describes the current view of the role of human resource management within a firm?
human resource management functions have become so important that in many firms all managers now perform them
The ____________ protects individuals over the age of 40 from discrimination based on age with respect to issues such as hiring, promotions, job benefits, and assignments.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
Employers must verify that employment candidates are eligible to work in the U.S. as mandated by
Immigration Reform and Control Act
The Family and Medical Leave Act:
provides unpaid leave of up to 12 weeks for males or females for the birth or adoption of infants, or in the case where it is necessary to care for an immediate family member who may be ill.
A(n) __________ is prepared as part of the human resource planning process, and indicates the characteristics and qualifications of the organization's labor force, thus helping the firm determine whether its employees are technically up-to-date and adequately trained.
human resource inventory
A __________ is a two-part process. One part explains what an employee would actually do at various jobs
A human resource inventory is designed to reveal whether:
the firm's labor force is technically up-to-date and well traine
_________ is the set of activities for obtaining the right number of people at the right time in order to select those who best meet the needs of the organization.
According to the American with Disabilities Act, which of the following is not an appropriate screening tool?
Part-time workers, temporary workers, and seasonal workers are defined by the HR department as ___________________
should be directly related to the job
What is an advantage of hiring contingent workers?
t is good strategy if the economic climate is uncertain.
Internet-based training courses are sometimes also called:
Computer and robotics training is sometimes performed in a nearby classroom type setting. We refer to near-the-job-training as _____________.
__________ is a type of training that duplicates the exact combination of conditions that occur on the job.
__________ is the process of establishing and maintaining contacts with key managers in one's own organization and in other organizations, and using those contacts to establish strong relationships that serve as informal development systems.
Job rotation helps lower-level managers prepare for higher-level positions by:
exposing them to different functions within the organization, thus giving them the broad perspective needed by top managers.
The _____________ is an evaluation of the performance level of employees against established standards to make decisions about promotions, compensation, additional training, or firing.
The first step in the performance appraisal process is to:
establish performance standards.
The two most common compensation methods for teams are:
skill-based pay and gain-sharing.
A common way of compensating teams is a ___________ system, in which bonuses are based on improvements over a previous performance baseline.
Sick-leave pay, vacation pay, pension plans, and health plans that provide additional compensation to employees are called:
A problem with the Hay system of compensating workers is that:
it can lead to resentment because more productive employees may earn less than employees who do not perform as well but have worked for the company longer.
The time when all employees must be present in a flextime plan is referred to as:
A disadvantage of flextime plans is that they often:
require supervisors and managers to work longer hours.
Companies are utilizing home-based workers as _______, shifting away from the expense of maintaining in-house operators or less qualified offshore operators.
Two advantages of using ___________ to fill open positions are: 1) it improves the morale of current employees, and 2) the person filling the position is already familiar with the organization's culture and procedures.
promotions from within
If a firm wants to know why valuable employees are leaving the company, it will conduct ___________.
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