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glycolysis can continue
all somatosensory receptors are neural
The NMJ is the synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle cell
The neuron releases the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (Ach)
Receptors on the muscle bind to Ach, which causes the muscle to contract
- ACh binds to nicotinic receptors, ion flow (NA+ and K+) initiates end-plate potential (EPP) --> action potential
- few units= small amount of force added= fine control
- large units= large amount of force added = more efficient force generation
Alert, lot of energy and erratic behavior
Induce by closing eyes, breathing slower; Associated with calming
Unconscious state, drifting into sleep
Low unresponsive, deep sleep
Requirements for normal CNS functions
largest portion made of grey/white matter
where special senses are looked at together
physical map of labeled lines coming from somatic sensory
analyzing and interpreting visual info
In consciousness, 80% of brains activity is ________.
More neurons coming out of here than any other part of brain
What is the cerebellum responsible for?
Major relay distribution of sensory info
neuro endocrine center, motor center over all autonomic motor connections
system of pulsing that determines alert status
nervous tissue that secretes melatonin
sleep inducing chemical that moves brain from beta waves to theta and delta waves
Calming environment, eyes closed: melatonin levels go ______
processing body movements and proprioceptive info
Heavy pre/post synaptic influence on somatic motor activity descending the brain stem
controls breathing and heart rate
Receives synapse for somatosensory info
Logical, reasoning, problem solving brain
enhances acetylcholine in body
Important in regulating mood
ability to reverse unconscious brain to conscious brain
Dream State Theory
transition from low amp/high freq to high amp/low freq
As you hit growth spurt, why do we sleep more?
Area most associated with emotion
feeling of pleasure
seen with positive motivation
area of short term memory use to guide direction
extended periods of feelings and motivations about well being
3 area important to memory
limited in capacity to subset of small bits of info on magnitude of 7-9 bits of info
use past info to guide behaviors/solve problems
task oriented procedures
Reflexive/ implicit memory
Good for trivia knowledge & facts
increase in stimulus of neural circuit
change in behavior through acquisition of new knowledge
located in visual cortex of occipital lobe and auditory cortex of temporal lobe
Initiates primary motor commands
Ability of brain to physically move function from one area to another (re wiring)
Not permanent hardwiring, but adaptable hardwiring
Acetylcholine (ACh)—nicotinic-fast acting sodium channel (ionotropic action) and muscarinic-G protein slow acting 2nd messenger system (metabotropic action), Norepinephrine (NE)—alpha and beta
Dopamine (DOPA)—D1-D5, Serotonin (5-HT)—5-HT-7
Glutamate/ Aspartate—AMPA, NMDA and G-protein glutamate, Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)—GABA-A and GABA-B, Glycine—similar to GABA but most action is in spinal cord
Voltage-gated K+ channels open, terminate action potential by repolarizing membrane, the K+ conductance of membrane increases . K+ ions moving out of cell bring the membrane potential closer to the equilibrium potential for K+ = brief hyperpolarization membrane,(membrane potential becomes transiently more - than the normal resting potential. Until the K+ conductance returns to the resting value, a greater stimulus will be required to reach the initiation threshold for a second depolarization.
There is a stimulus, the sodium ions go into the cell causing it to depolarize (become less negative than normal due to the flowing of positive charges in) and then the potassium ions go out of the cell and that repolarizes it back (due to flowing of positive charges out, causing it to be negative). Then we reestablish the ion concentration gradients through the sodium/potassium ATP pump.
3. Amino acids
Phasic adaption—rapidly adapting receptors that fire when they first receive a stimulus but cease firing if the strength of the stimulus remains constant
Tonic receptors—slowly adapting receptors that fire rapidly when first activated, then slow and maintain their firing as long as the stimulus is present
*All receptor impulses continuously monitor changes in the internal or external environment
The amount of neurotransmitter released is by exocytosis
Each synaptic vesicle contains the same amount of neurotransmitter, so measuring the magnitude of the target cell response is an indication of how many vesicles released their content.
One Action: Acetylcholine (ACh), Norepinephrine (NE)
Multiple Actions: Norepinephrine (NE), Glutamate/ Aspartate, Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), Glycine
Dopamine (DOPA), Serotonin (5-HT)
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)—inhibitory
Neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal,their vesicles "fuse" with the membrane of the axon terminal, spilling the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
Their commands are terminated by:
1.The reuptake of the neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and glutamate)
2. Degradation by an enzyme that is in the synaptic cleft. (acetylcholine and chains of amino acids)
Can you decide between two neurons which will impulse faster? Which will have a more intensified effect?
neuron axon diameter and degree of myelination determine impulse velocity
Group A fibers—fastest (large diameter and myelinated)
A alpha fibers (afferent or efferent fibers)
A beta fibers (afferent or efferent fibers)
A gamma fibers (efferent fibers)
A delta fibers (afferent fibers)
Group B fibers—myelinated with small diameter
Preganglionic fibers of ANS—excite
Group C fibers—unmyelinated and small diameter
Postganglionic fibers in ANS—excite
Fibers at dorsal root that relay pain, temp, touch, pressure, and itch
Sensitivity—Detection of stimuli
Type of Receptor Examples of Stimuli:
Chemoreceptors—Oxygen, pH, various organic molecules such as glucose
Mechanoreceptors—Pressure (baroreceptors), cell stretch (osmoreceptors), vibration, acceleration, sound
Photoreceptors—Photons of light
Thermoreceptors—Varying degrees of heat
Which sense makes use of mitral cells? Olfactory cells? Gustatory cells? Photoreceptors? Bipolar Cells? Organ of Corti cells?
Organ of Corti cells—auditory
Without adding sulfur to natural gas, the human cannot detect the presence of natural gas. Why?
Natural gas is an efficient, safe, colorless and odorless gas.
Some people may not be able to smell the odor because they have a diminished sense of smell, or are experiencing olfactory fatigue.
Natural gas and sulfur combined smell like rotten eggs
Why and how are metabotropic sense receptors different from ionotropic sense receptors?
Metabotropic sense receptors—acts through a 2nd messenger system; some regulate the opening or closing of ion channels
Inotropic sense receptors—allow different kinds of ions to travel in and out of the cell
Why is turbulent air flow in the nasal vestibule important to smell sense?
Because the cilia are embedded in layers of mucus and odorant molecules must first dissolve in and penetrate the mucus before they can bind to an odorant receptor protein. Odoratn receptos are sensitive.
How does the arrangement of gustatory hair cells affect taste sensation?
Every taste bud is made up of basal and supporting cells that help maintain about 50 gustatory receptor cells—stimulated by the chemical makeup of solutions. When a stimulus activates a gustatory cell, the receptor will synapse with neurons and send an electrical impulse to the gustatory region of the cerebral cortex. The brain interprets the sensation as taste.
Which CNS structure primarily is a relay station of sensory information to both conscious and subconscious CNS?
How much of the visceral information is relayed through the vagus nerve?
contains about 75% of all parasympathetic fibers—it carries sensory info from internal organs to the brain and parasympathetic output from the brain to organs
Where does each sense labeled line begin and end?
How do the ganglion cells in the visual labeled line improve acuity?
They transmit image-forming and non-image forming visual information from the retina in the form of action potential to several regions in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon, or midbrain.
How can the right and left visual cortexes receive information from both monocular and binocular visual fields?
Lateralization—left brain-right brain dominance:
Right visual cortex receives input from the left visual field
Left visual cortex receives its input from the right visual field
Which sense is associated with the individual, sensory cranial nerves?
How can one sensation influence the relay of another sensation (hint: gated control)?
Ab fibers carrying sensory information about mechanical stimuli help block pain transmission
Why is it important that visceral senses have cranial nerve labeled lines?
To preserves the topographical organization of receptors on the skin, eye, or other regions in the processing centers of the brain.
At what point along the relay of somatic sense labeled lines, which are originating from a common body region, will the discrete sense become separated so as to be routed to the correct interpretive CNS region? Why is this necessary?
so that sensations from the left side of the body are processed in the right hemisphere
Which senses are conscious and which are subconscious?
Conscious: taste, auditory, vision, smell, equilibrium
Subconscious: muscle length and tension, proprioception
Where does each special sense relayed to?
Which region is for receptive language?
The integration of spoken language in the human brain involves two regions in the cerebral cortex
in the temporal lobe
Which CNS regions process sensory information and what specific sense does each deal with?
Pons processes sensory info
Chemoreceptors—smell and taste
Where is the behavioral brain? Homeostatic brain? Logical brain? Representational brain?
Where would simple reflex arcs occur? Complex reflex arcs?
Logical—hippocampus (limbic system)
Representational—amygdala and hippocampus (limbic system)
Simple reflex arc—parasympathetic
Complex reflex arc—autonomic
How is the somatic sensory cortex arranged? Why is this so?
In the parietal lobe is the termination point pathway from the skin, musculoskeletal system, and viscera.
It carries info about touch, temp, pain, itch, and body position.
Perception is the brain’s interpretation of sensory information transmitted along pathways. Our perception can be magnified by past experiences or suppressed in emergencies when survival depends on ignoring injury.
Where does the CNS use sensory information for representational awareness? categorical awareness?
Sensory info from the spinal cord projects to the thalamus, then onto sensory areas of the cerebral cortex
How do photoreceptors activate and relay to the visual cortex?
Transduce light energy into an electrical signal that passes to the visual cortex for processing
What influences the role of the cerebellum?
What is gained by the sharing of sensory information between asymmetrical cortexes?
How is the thickness of the basilar membrane in the organ of corti assisting with pitch interpretation?
The location of active hair cells creates a code that the brain translates as information about the pitch of sound
How is the topography of the tongue important to taste perception?
What is generally categorized as “taste” is basically a bundle of different sensations: it is not only the qualities of taste perceived by the tongue, but also the smell, texture and temperature of a meal that are important.
How are association areas beneficial to perceptual ability?
Perception is the brain’s interpretation of sensory stimuli. Assocation areas integrate sensory info into perception
Why are there only three semicircular canals in the vestibular complex?
Where is temperature monitored? Blood Pressure? Proprioreception?
Proprioreceptors—muscles, joints, tendons (limbs)
What makes the special senses so special?
They collect and transmit external sensations from the environment to the brain
For what is proprioreception important?
It gives one a sense of self, aides in self-regulation and promotes success in both fine motor and gross motor activities.
Can you choose a sense and then give its purpose?
Eyes—sight, judge depth, interpret new information, and identify color (the wavelengths of light that reflect off surfaces).
Noses are used to smell scents. They get a sense for what particles are traveling through the air, which can help us identify if dangerous chemicals are nearby. Smell also has the strongest connection to memory; a familiar smell can remind us of things long forgotten.
Ears allow us to hear sound - to detect vibrations in the air particles around us. But the inner ear also helps us maintain balance and regulate sinus pressure. This is especially useful when you change altitude (like, for example, when you are flying in an airplane).
Tongues are used to taste foods, allowing us to figure out if something is going to be useful to our bodies or poisonous. They also allow us to sense hot and cold in food and liquids.
Particularly with Auditory and Visual senses, the labeled lines conclude from each sense organ in both right and left cerebral hemispheres. Why is this important to us?
Labeled line coding—the association of a receptor with a specific sensation
It is important because it tells the brain where a stimulus is
Each sense has receptors; The brain has specialized areas for different functions; called localization of function. Each sense has its specialized area, which when activated produces the experience associated with that sense.
Why are some senses adapting quickly (Phasic) and others are less likely to adapt (Tonic)?
Phasic—rapidly adapting receptors that are attuned to changing conditions
Tonic—are slowly adapting receptors that fire rapidly when first activated, then slow and maintain their firing as long as the stimulus is present
specific name for graded potential in neural receptor
- acts as secondary messenger, opening RyR (Ca++ gated Ca++ channels) on SR
- combined Ca++ signal leads to contraction cycle (similar to sliding filament theory in skeletal muscle)
- repolarization masked by QRS complex
- not unusual for Q wave to be absent from trace
- minute respiratory volume- air moved in and out of the lungs per minute
- also called: total pulmonary vent
- TV x RR
- Alveolar ventilation- air reaching the gas exchange per minute
- (TV - DV) x RR
- lungs must be compliant enough to allow for inhalation
- usually about 80%
- can indicate obstruction if too low or restriction if too high