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University of Alabama - Birmingham
BY 409L Final
BY 409L Final
University of Alabama - Birmingham
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Pia Marie C.
Depolarization in AUTORHYTHMIC cells
Slow Na+ leak
In voltage-gated Ca++ channels, T-type opens briefly, L-type opens threshold, and Ca+++ causes rising phase of AP
Variable K+leak: channels open at positive potentials and close at negative potentials
Is the depolarization process in AUTORHYTHMIC cells continuous or not?
CO= stroke vol x rate
equation for cardiac output
by changing the behavior of the channels
how is the rate of autorhythmic cycling adjusted
slows closing of K+ channels
increased K+ permeability in SA node
decreased excitability of AV node, increased AV node delay
shortens AP in atrial myocardium
parasympathetic - decreases cardiac output
speeds closing of K+ channels
decreases K+ permeability
decreases AV node delay
increases Ca++ permeability in myocardium
sympathetic - increase CO
Time between beats
P-R Interval or P-Q Interval
from the start of P wave to the start of Q wave, time for atrial depolarization ad contraction
P-R segment or P-Q segment
from end of P wave to start of Q wave (or R if Q is not easily seen), atrial contraction and AV node delay
From start of Q wave to end of T wave, time for ventricular depolarization, contracion adn repolarization cycle
vol of blood leaving the ventricle per min
viscosity and blood vol (salt/water balance - kidney fxn and interstitial fluid and blood)
Which takes time?
vasoconstriction and vasodilation and cardiac output
mechanoreceptors in carotid and aorta
carotid and aorta
where are baroreceptors located
stretch of the artery
what do baroreceptors measure?
artery stretches less; BP increases to compensate
if P drops, what happens to the artery? Therefore what happens?
artery stretches more; BP decreases to compensate
if P increases, what happens
CO x total peripheral resistance
Mean Arterial Pressue caused by what?
Diastolic P + 1/3 Pulse P
No blood flows through the vessel
No sound is heard because of no flow
Whne cuff P is greater than 120 mm Hg and exceeds blood P throughout the cardiac cycle
Blood flow through vessel is turbulent when BP exceeds cuff P.
1st sound is heard at peak SYSTOLIC P
Intermittent sounds are heard as BP exceeds cuff P
When cuff P is between 120 mm and 80 mm Hg
Blood flows in a smooth fashion
the last sound is hear at min of diastolic P
No sound is heard b/c of uninterrupted flow
When cuff P is less than 80 mm Hg and below BP throughout cardiac cycle
1st polarization of the septum
depolarization traveling down the septum
total energy output per unit time
heat production and oxygen production rate
how is metabolic rate measured?
O2 consumption rate and external work performed
Pulmonary ventilation rate and CO increases, as well as BP
what happens in order to deliver proper amounts of oxygen to muscles?
ATP broken down to ADP to furnish energy within muscle fibers to facilitate muscle contraction
fast twitch glycolytic
primarily anaerobic; easily fatigued
fast twitch oxidative
can aerobic or anaerobic; not as easily fatigued
slow twitch oxidative
primarily aerobic; resistant to fatigue
point where muscles have used anaerobic to sustain level of metabolism; can no longer use aerobic alone
respiration and heart rate remain increased after exercise to replenish body
recharges phosphagen system
lactic acid ->pyruvic acid
donates energy to ADP to make ATP
1.3 -1.6 minutes
How long can anaerobic system be support muscle contraction?
glycogen -> glucose -> pyruvic acid and NADH (2 net ATP)
supports long-term muscle contraction
2 pyruvic acids are broken down in Kreb's and electron transport chain resulting in 34 ATP
CO2 and O2 respectively
what is produced in Kreb's and used in the electron transport chain
where does electron transport occur?
where does Kreb's occur
where does glycolysis occur?
Of glycolysis, electron transport chain, adn Kreb's, which is (are) utilize oxygen?
How many ATPs do glycolysis and Kreb's EACH yield?
How many ATP does electron transport chain yield?
what is the substance that's processed in glycolysis?
acetyl co a from pyruvic acid, which is from glycolysis
what is the substance that's processed from Kreb's
electrons from H+ ions from Kreb's
what's the substance that's processed from the electron transport chain
phosphagen system can support muscle contraction for how long?
100 m dash or high jumping
The phosphogen system is involved in what type of sports?
involves glycogen-lactic acid system
tennis, soccer, 100 m swim, 400 m dash
what sports rely on anaerobic process
during a flat run, what type of metabolism is used?
what suports increase heart rate and respiratory rate?
increased respiration and heart rate
what replenishes the body with oxygen, recharges the phosphogen system, and converts accumulated lactic acid back into pyruvic acid
byporduct of all the metabolic activity
movement of air into and out of the lungs (ie. breathing)
allows from the movement of oxygen into the lungs and movement of CO2 out of the lungs
measurement of air movement in the lungs
by combingin 2 or more of the lung volumes
how do you calculate pulmonary capacity?
volume of air inspired or expired during a normal relaxed breath
inspiratory reserve vol
extra vol of air that can be forcibly inspired over and beyond you TV (or normal breath)
expiratory reserve vol
vol of air that may be forcibly expired at the end of your TV
amount of air left in the lungs after forced expiration; keeps alveoli partially inflated and prevents lungs from collapsing
minute respiratory volume
amount of air inspired or expired during 1 min of normal respiration
TV x RR
how to calculate MRV
total lung capcity
maximal amount of air the lungs can hold
TLC = IRV + TV + ERV + RV
How do you calculate TLC?
max amount of air that can be exchanged during forced breathing;
VC = ERV+ IRV +TV
vital capacity equation
max amount of air that can be expired after the lungs have been filled to their max extent
amount of air which can be forcibly inspired after a normal expiration
IC = IRV + TV
inspiratory capacity equation
functional residual capacity
amount of air remaining in the lungs and airways following a normal expiration
FRC = ERV + RV
functional residual capacity equation
right and left AV valves
what prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricles into the atria
increase size of thoracic cavity
decrease in-cavity pressure
air moves into the lungs
lung elasticity recoils the lungs
decrease the size of thoracic cavity
increases in-cavity pressure
air forced out of the lungs
uses more muscular force to move air in and out
what determines blood pH
autorhythmic tissue located in the wall of the right atrium
normally where the depolarization starts in the heart bc it spontaneously depolarizes faster than other conductive tissues
small region of CONDUCTIVE tissue at the base of the right atrium and connects with the AV bundle in the ventricles
delays the spread of the depolarization before it's transferred to the AV bundle
conducts the depolarization into the ventricle and the down the intervetntricular septum to the apex of the heartp
rapidly conduct the depolarization up through the cardiac muscle of the ventricles
represents atrial depolarization
ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization
represents the AV Node delay
time between atrial depolarization and ventricular depolarization
AV valve and semilunar valve
what ensures unidirectional flow of blood in the heart?
allows blood to flow from the atrium into the ventricle
AV valve allows blood to flow in which direction?
when is the 1st heart sound heard?
closing of the AV valves and opening of semilunar valves
what is caused by the first heart sound?
what is the sound of the first heart sound?
What is the sound of the second heart sound
during the ventricular diastole
when is the second heart sound?
closing of the semilunar valves and opening of the AV valves
what cause the second sound of the heart?
turbulence associated with rapid filling of the ventricles shortly after opening the AV valves
third heart sound caused by what?
caused by turbulence associated with the passage of blood from atria into the ventricles during atrial systole
4th sound is caused by what?
when other tissues such as the Purkinje fibers take over and stimulate the contraction of the ventricles
increase in T increases your heart rate
how does T affect your heart rate
100-139 mm Hg
normal range of systolic pressure for resting adult
normal diastolic pressure for a resting adult
difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
what's directly related to the stroke vol of the heart and inversely related to heart rate and peripheral resistance
normal TLC; reduced VC and even more reduced FEV1; increased FRC and RV
what is affected in a person with obstructive lung disease?
obstructive lung disease
when the FEV1/VC is much lower than 80%
restrictive lung disease
FEV1/VC is usually greater than 80%
disease where lungs are less compliant
patient experiences more difficulty emptying the lungs than filling them
TLC, IC, and VC are reduced; FEV1/VC is normal 80% or higher
What is affected in people with restrictive lung disease
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