Chemistry 2510 Introductory Experimental Organic Chemistry Spring 2009 Laboratory Reports The laboratory report should be typed and follow the following format: Cover Page: The cover page should include the title of the experiment, your name, your lab instructor's name, and the due date. Results and Discussion: You are to present the results or findings of your experimental work. This may include any of the following: (1) A concise statement of the purpose of the experiment. (2) Observations, tables of data, spectra. Tables or figures often work best for the presentation of similar sets of data. Copies of spectra should always be atached to your lab report (and a copy needs also to go in your notebook!). Al IR spectra should have major peak asignments on the submited spectrum. A copy of each spectrum should also be kept in your notebook! When you run a TLC plate, you should include a representation of it in your report (and in your notebook as wel!). R f ?s should always be calculated for al spots. (3) Graphs. Al plots submited with your lab report should be created using Excel or a comparable software program. (4) Calculations. Show a complete example of each type of calculation (i.e. yield), using proper units. A sample calculation usualy includes a general relationship or formula, a substitution of data into the equation, and an answer. It is not necesary to show the algebraic manipulation of an equation. Repetitive calculations should not be shown, but the results tabulated. Results for each of two or more samples should be calculated separately, and the final results averaged if appropriate. Don't average the raw data and then perform one calculation. Cary extra digits through your calculations and round the final answer to the correct number of significant figures. (5) Balanced equations. Write balanced equations for any reactions important to the experiment. (6) Mechanism of Reactions. You should draw (by hand or with chemical drawing software) the mechanism for the formation of the major product from your reaction. (6) Evaluation of results. How do they compare to the acepted value (if known)? Are they within the range to be expected? Explain any discrepancies in terms of possible sources of eror and the specific efects they would have on your results (would a particular eror cause your result to be higher or lower than the actual value?). You should make mention of any spectral data/physical data that supports your evaluation of the results. Include any specific erors you know you made (which should have been recorded in your lab notebook), and any other likely sources of eror. If you obtained another, unexpected product, can you offer an explanation for how it formed? (7) Final Conclusions. Summarize any conclusions you have drawn, such as the result of testing a hypothesis, the relationship betwen two variables, or a value for a constant that you have determined. (8) Bibliography. List any reference books, journals, URL?s you used for reference material, including IR spectra. Al of these individual parts should be sewn together with any necesary explanatory text. Grading of Lab Reports The following wil be considered when grading laboratory reports: The scientific content: The data, observations, graphs, mechanisms, and calculations in your lab report wil be examined. Data wil be evaluated on its completenes and proper presentation. Observations wil be evaluated upon their completenes and acuracy. Graphs wil be graded upon their completenes and proper construction. Calculations wil be graded upon their completenes and correctnes of their solution. Special emphasis wil be placed upon conclusions extracted from data, observations, graphs, and calculations when grading. Adherence to lab report guidelines: Some portion of the lab report grade wil be based upon the extent to which the lab report guidelines have been adhered to. Style of writing: In scientific papers facts and the interpretation of facts are more important than personalities. Do not comment on whether you or your lab partners enjoyed the experiment in your lab report. Use the depersonalized writing known as ?scientific? when writing your lab report. Some other important aspects of this style: * Use the past tense. The lab report discusses an experiment that has already been completed. The tense in which it is writen should reflect this. * Use the third person and pasive voice. For example: write: A 1.00 M solution of NaOH(aq) was prepared. not: I (we) made a 1.00 M solution of NaOH(aq). not: Make a 1.00 M solution of NaOH(aq). * Be acurate and specific. The details of what you have done are part of the important information you are trying to convey. Thomas Ruttledge C2510 Lab Reports S 2009
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