Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
a swelling that can be caused by a number of conditions, including inflammation and trauma.
benign tumor of glandular epithelial tissue
benign tumor of bone tissue
malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin
neoplasms that contain well differentiated cells that are clustered together in a single mass.
Slow, progressive rate of growth that may come to a standstill or regress
Presence of a well-defined fibrous capsule VS invasive.
Failure to metastasize to other sites.
Composed of well-differentiated cells that resemble the cells of the tissue of origin
Do not usually cause death unless by their location interferes with vital functions.
Tend to compress blood vessels and outgrow their blood supply, causing ischemia and tissue necrosis. rob normal tissues of essential nutrients, autonomous, lack of cell differentiation, anaplastic cells, metastisize, invasive, kill regardless of original location
cessation of growth after a cell comes in contact with another cell
density dependent inhibition of growth
increased cellular division rates cause...
tumor markers (biologic assays)
antigens that are expressed on the surface of tumor cells or substances released from normal cells in response to the presence of tumor. Found in blood, CSF, urine
carcinoembryonic antigen – colorectal cancer and gastric and breast cancers.
Screen & identify high risk people for cancer
Diagnose specific type of tumor in people with S & S as in adrenal tumors
Follow clinical course of the cancer
example of exfoliative cytology. Cancer cells exfoliate and become mixed with secretions surrounding tumor growth. Cervical cancer
Cancer occurs because:
interactions between multiple risk factors or repeated exposure to a single carcinogenic agent.
any malignant tumor or neoplasm; not benign growths.
cell growth factors become unbalanced or when cells cannot respond to growth-suppressor factors or perhaps are chronically stimulated.
growth of neoplasms is:
uncoordinated and relatively autonomous in that it lacks normal regulatory controls over cell growth and division.
Neoplasms tend to
increase in size and continue to grow after the stimulus has ceased or
the needs of the organism have been met.
genetic mechanism whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
mutant genes that in their normal non-mutant state direct synthesis of proteins
that are positively regulate (accelerate) proliferation
(normal, non mutant state) – regulate the growth and proliferation of
Tumor-suppressor genes (anti-oncogenes)
inhibit proliferation of cells in a
tumor (Encode proteins that in their normal state negatively regulate proliferation)
Exposure to mutagens
if the mutation occurs in somatic cells, it is a genetic event but not passed to progeny
Mutations present in germ line cells result in vertical transmission of cancer-causing
genes from one generation to the next=families with a inc. of specific cancers
angiogenic (vascular) endothelial growth factors (VEGF)
Viruses play an important role in the development of certain forms of cancer, particularly leukemia and lymphoma
Viruses enter a host cell and become incorporated into its chromosomal DNA or take control of the cell’s machinery for the purpose of producing viral proteins
human papilloma virus. Cancers of cervix and anogenital region.
Epstein-Barr Virus. 4 human cancers.
Chronic Hepatitis B & C virus. Hepatocellular CA. (liver cancer)
Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus
Human T cell leukemia–lymphoma virus
Bacterial causes (Helicobacter pylori )
Chronic infections are associated with: gastric infection, stomach carcinoma, peptic ulcer
disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).
Cytokine release from inflammatory cells
Decreased response to DNA damage
Cancer cells must gain access to blood and lymphatic vessels, survive the trip to distant locations, move back into the tissues, and initiate a new tumor
% of human cancers are associated with exposure to environmental
or chemical agents
6 million have been identified – fewer than 1000 have been extensively examined
do not require activation in the body to become carcinogenic.
Usually weak carcinogens that may cause cancer depending upon dose and duration of exposure. Example: occurs in natural food stuffs, by cooking food (Xenobiotics), produced by microorganism in stored food.
procarcinogens which become active only after metabolic conversion. Most potent are the polycyclic hydrocarbons produced in combustion of tobacco and present in cigarette smoke, or presence of nitrites preservatives in smoked meats and fish.
Sexual & reproductive behavior-HPV (cervical cancer)
Hormones: Oral contraceptives,Estrogens only therapy, Progesterones (HRT-progestins)
and androgens (Prostrate cancer)
Occupation hazards-Asbestos, Herbicides
The effects of ionizing radiation in the contribution of carcinogenesis has been well documented.
The type of cancer that develops is dependent on the dose of radiation, the gender of the person, and the age at which exposure occurred.
Sunlight inc. risk of skin cancer.
cancers classified according to histologic or cellular characteristics of the tumor
Graded I, II, III, IV with increasing lack of differentiation
used to determine the progress and spread of the disease
little or no pain in early stages. 60-80% of patients terminally ill with cancer have
anorexia (loss of appetite), weight loss,asthenia (marked weakness),altered
Exert their lethal action at the cellular level by creating adverse conditions that prevent cell growth and replication. Disrupt enzymes, inhibit protein synthesis, and prevent cell mitosis.
Most effective in treating tumors that have a high growth fraction because of their ability to kill rapidly dividing cells.
Single vs Combination vs Adjuvant therapy
Cells are killed or severely affected and will eventually die.
More effective in rapidly dividing cells.
Immunotherapy or biotherapy
Eliminate cancer cells without damaging normal cells. Biologic response modifiers (BRMs)
Direct cytotoxic effect on cells
Augmentation of host’s tumor-immune rejection response, Modification of the cancer cell susceptibility to the lytic or tumor static effects of the
immune system .Interferon, interleukin therapy, monoclonal antibodies
Hair & Skin
Bronchogenic carcinomas which arise from the epithelium of respiratory tract.
Environmental or occupational risk factors
larynx, oral cavity, esophagus, and urinary bladder
Four major histologic types of lung cancer
Non–small cell lung cancer *Squamous cell carcinoma *Adenocarcinoma
Large cell carcinoma (undifferentiated)
Small cell carcinoma
Non-small cell lung cancers
Squamous cell carcinoma
Found commonly in men with a history of smoking
Typically located near the hilus and project into central bronchi
Found commonly in women and nonsmokers
Usually small tumors located in peripheral regions of lung
Grow more rapidly than squamous cell tumors
Central in origin. Strongest link to smoking
Ability to undergo paraneoplastic transformation and secrete polypeptide hormones.
Grow rapidly, highly malignant, metastasize early in course of disease
Chest pain, cough, sputum production, pneumonia
Sensitive to chemo and radiation
Cells are large & anaplastic
Tend to spread early in the course of disease & treatment limited to palliative (comfort) care
Early – chronic cough, shortness of breath, wheezing.
Hemoptysis – erosion into blood vessels=coughing up blood or blood stained mucus
Hoarseness and difficulty swallowing
Superior vena cava syndrome – mediastinal shift Pleural effusion
CXR, sputum cytology, CT, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, biopsy.
surgery (lobectomy, pneumonectomy, segmentectomy), chemotherapy, radiation
Second leading cause of cancer death in US. Cause largely unknown
Family history of colon cancer
Crohn’s or ulcerative colitis
*Adenomatous polyps of the colon
Diet causes: inc. refined sugar intake, high fat, low fiber intake and low calcium
intake, low levels of vitamins A, C, and E (protective micronutrients)
Cigarette & alcohol use
*Bleeding usually the first sign. Change in bowel habits (also early sign & symptom)
Ascending colon: pain, palpable mass LRQ, anemia and dark-red or mahoney-colored blood mixed with stool;
Descending colon; pain, change in bowel habits, bright red blood in stool, possible obstruction
Prognosis depends upon how early they detect it
Screening – occult blood test, rectal exams, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy
CEA – carcinoembryonic antigen. Can be used as screening but levels do not elevate
until tumor has grown quite large. Used to monitor tumor recurrence.
Tx: surgical removal of tumor, radiation, chemo
mass that protrudes into the lumen of gut. Strong family tendency. Benign neoplasms that arise from epithelial of the intestine.
Most cases of colorectal cancer start from these polyps (dysplastic cells going to
Frequency of polyps increases with age (> 50 yrs), men and women equally affected
Rx Remove lesions-reduce colorectal cancer risk
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!