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social reward - judgements about an individual's personal worthiness, contrbutions to group.
Norms, Values, Worldviews, and other cultural knowledge.
Example: Americans admire "self-made: persons who have succeeded in life by their talents and efforts.
Class whose members have a sense of community; organized to pursue common class interests.
1)band or camp must move frequently so it is hard to transport possessions.
2) cultural value they place on reciprocal sharing prevents anyone from becoming wealthier than others.
3) are not tied to specific territories but have right to exploit resources of many areas due to extended family ties.
1) They do not refer to rewards based on sex or gender.
2) Morton Fried's 3 categories merely point along a continum of inequality.
3) egalitarian-ranked-stratified is the temporal order in which the 3 forms developed.
-Human infants are able to learn the culture of any human group.
-cultural knowledge from one generation is available to members of future generations.
-human groups can change their ideas and behaviors very rapidly.
-all of these
-Race is obvious
-There is more genetic variation within a race than between races
-There are only three races
-It is better to classify race using blood groups than skin color.
When terms of address used between people are not reciprocal, this is an indication of social inequality between those interacting.
how a person speaks may be used by others to make judgements about that persons sexual orientation or social class location.
Gender is the only social characteristic that is not consistently reflected in speech patterns and norms for communication within any given culture.
Speech patterns, mannerisms, and other non-verbal communications are used by people to manage the impresssions that others have of them.
-When terms of address used btwn ppl aren't reciprocal, it is a indication of social inequality btwn those interacting.
-How a person speaks may be used by others to judge about their sexual orientation/or social class location.
-Speech patterns, mannerisms & other non-verbal communication are used by ppl to manage
impressions others have of them.
-Gender is the only social characteristic that is not recflected in speech patterns & norms for communication w/in any given culture.
-The ethnographic description of cultures are treated as timeless and unchanging.
-The ethnographic information is not dated; there is no record of the years which it covers.
-They only address nonliterate cultures.-All of these are true.
it is not easily understood by non-anthropologists
it is not a very convenient shorthand to use
the concept of other is based on cultural relativism
Cultural - Study of culture (way of life, beliefs, values, etc) of a society or group of people.
Linguistic - Study of relationship between language and culture.
Biological (Physical) –Study of evolution, human variation, primatology, etc.
Archaeology - Study by excavation of historic materials (historic or prehistoric).
Applied – Use anthropological methods to solve practical, real-world problems (gov’t, private org.)
Scientific Approaches – Notion that cultural differences/similarities can be explained in the same sense as biologists explain life and its evolution.
Humanistic Approaches –Skeptical of general theories because culture worlds are too complex for one theory.
It is like market exchange without using money.
It is motivated by the desire to obtain material goods at minimal cost.
It can take the form of barter.
All of these are true.
-tribute paid by subjects to a chief
-"pork barrel" deals made by politicians
-flucuations in share prices in the stock market !!
-In places where it is permitted it is not the primary form of marriage.
-Responsibility for the wife/children is shared equally by all the brothers/husbands.
-Polyandry has effect of keeping population low.-Women in polyandrous marriages tend to have a higher standard of living than others.
based on kinship XX
organized around one's employment.
is based on geographical distance XX
considers the names given to each member of a kin group
used the sex of the connecting relatives as the basis of defining kin.
none of these
ambilineal descent XX
extended families XX
by their biological makeup
throught their own psych experiences
through interaction of their biological make up of life experiences
by their life experiences XX
-mothers tend to agree that babies should nurse on demand.
-when babies are weaned too quickly they may suffer from malnutrition. !!
-there is general agreement that babies should be allowed to wean themselves.
-weaning babies away from the mother;s breast must take place before age two.
-how men and women define themselves
-what it means to be a man or a woman
-what roles are appropriate for men and women
-All of these are culturally constructed according to anthropologists
-sexual intercourse is considered dangerous for men because it transfers nu to women
-women must serve food to men so that their nu may be passed to the men
-men and women become more different from each other over time as women acquire more nu
-all of these are true of the Hua beliefs about nu
-Men and women tend to seek jobs considered appropriate for cultural conceptions of gender.
-Employers tend to hire for positions based on their own conceptions of gender appropriate work.
-People tend to stereotype each other according to gender constructions, regardless of their own identities.-All of these are explanations for male-dominated hiring in construction.
welcomed as nadle (men-women)
-Anthropologists have long recognized the existence of early matriarchal societies.
-A matriarchal society by definition should be the mirror image of a patriarchal society. x
-No instance of systemic female dominance over men has been documented.-Anthropologists are in agreement on the valid definition of matriarchy.
compatibility with family, financial status, social status, clean and thorough background investigation, etc.
Holds that males and females who are closely associated during childhood have little sexual desire for one another once they reach adulthood.
-In Kibbutzim, children were raised by communal caregivers and they rarely married within the group because familiarity breeds disinterest.
Effects: Mana makes chief successful; pollution sickens man
In Judaism, Christianity & Islam - the supreme being is all knowing/powerful, expects sacrifices or worship and is mindful of human behavior/morality.
Oral or written stories about actions/deeds of supernatural powers & cultural heroes.
organized performance of behaviors intended to influence supernatural powers.
All 3 theories are complimentary of each other.
notion that religious beliefs provide explanations for puzzling things and events.
emotional of affective satisfactions that people derive from religion.
some individuals are believed to have contact with the supernatural that ordinary people lack.
members gather periodically for rituals that are believed to benefit the group as a whole.
Modern religions (separation of state).
state sponsored, highly organized priesthood.
rituals in bldgs that serve as temples.
-Hierarchically organized; subsidized by formal gov't
-ancient civilizations, priests were at or near the top of social ladder
-priests liveed better than the at large population
-rituals occur at regular intervals; reg praises and sacrifices
Social movements in religious nature with purpose of totally reforming a society
Form - physical form/shape of an object is reflection of its utilitarian function, technical knowledge and skill of producing it and general lifestyle of society.
Oranmentation - design added to the physical form of object.
-discovery of America by Columbus in 1492
-the european global maritime trade network allowed exchange for
-urban americans couldn't survive diseases that europeans were immune from (small pox)
1,800 - european contract w/non-western ppl changed to political domination.
19th century - eurpean countries began claiming lands/ppl.
-over past 50 yrs, process of globalization started a global economy
-creation of global market and the integration of ppl/communities into this market.
-in global economy, labor, goods and services are brought and sold on global market.
collapse of existing colonial empires
One that has most of its employees, produces and sells most of its products/services, and generates most gross revenues outside the national boundaries of its home country.
Population growth rapid. In last 50 yrs, world pop. jumped from 2.5 to more than 6 billion.
-ppl move btwn them
-new groups form
-extinction of group seldom means biological extinction
-members of one group are absorbed into another.
group that sees itself as a politically subordinate subset of a nationality.
Civilization - group of distinct nationalities on basis of shared/common cultural historical tradition - most common is religion.
4 Levels of ethnic identity (explain Nationalities)
Nationalities – groups who own homeland in which they have exclusive rights – different types of religion, so this is a problem.
Transnational - communities that are geographically separated from homeland & live among members of another nationality -- Mexicans working in US.
After absence of 2,000 yrs jews returned to homeland (Palestine),1882, and proclaimed the state of Israel, 1948. Palestinians expelled to Lebanon, Egypt, US. War insued & Israelis gained control over most areas west of Jordan River (7day war).
Constant conflict btwn Israelites/Palestinians. 2 nationalities claim same geographical region. Impossible to resolve differences. Can't combine & become 1 state, can't draw border and become 2 states.
deliberate attemp by dominate group.
forced settlement of an unwanted ethnic group in new geographical location.
Segregation - dominant group places legal restrictions on the actions of the members of the dependant group.
Absorption of one ethnic group by another dominant one.
May be total in which ethnic group identity of one group is lost.
Dominant Group does not attempt to eliminate the group, but places legal restrictions on actions of members in dependent group.
2 major reasons - dependent group performs a needed economic service and is so powerless that it presents no threat.
They lack the amount of land and labor needed to industrialize
Industrial revolution changed people's lifestyes as the transistioned from farmers to laborers
It extended slavery bc it would only be profitable with cheap labor.
Led to Cherokee removal bc their land was needed for cotton production.
If a social meaning is given to an instance of illness, the the cause is seen as social.
A curer attempts to remove a spell, return the soul to the body, or to remove a spiritual object that is causing the symptoms of illness; attempt to cure illness and social problem.
Chemical fertilizers and pesticides, high yield seeds, new farming techniques.
Consequences: Market production only helps small minority, chemical fertilizers are expensive, soil loses nutrients, threatens possibilty of subsistence strategies.
E.Coli common in cows and spread to other foods through their feces.
Animal cruelty, antibiotic resistance, health and cost of benefit analysis.
When power operates in a naturalized way and is taken for granted; involves active creation and education of consent. Dominant values become “universal”.
Must recognize ideal (non-material) as well as material interests
Class is not the only significant basis of group formation
Need to account for both ideal and material and emphasize subjective understandings
Modern form of political organization in which sovereignty is extended over a geographic area.
grief & pain, guilt & distrust, "culture of terror"
Polarized the society b/w supporters and opposers
displaced 1.5 million refugees
Basic standards for human dignity; moral claims of universal human conditions; demands protection from dehumanization; political and social rights used to challenge military government. Remaking political culture.
By putting strong emphasis on sharing and cooperation b/w countries. condeming those who boast or challege others, ppl aviod bossing others and control negative emotions
Freedom to regulate our own lives, access to information and government, freedom of expression.
philisophy often synonymous with globalization, the desire to expand development to underdeveloped countries, heavily supported by workd bank and IMF.
Social science usually counterposes "belief" to "proof"
Based on empiricism, positivism and reason
Does not examine its own faith in what it knows or recognize that empiricism and reason are involved in belief.
Traits are not linked.
More variation witin races, not b/w them.
Worldview that normalizes or ignore racial inequality.
Worldview that notices inequality and want to combat it.
Racism must be intentional, deliberate, and person-accedental inequalities don't matter.
Racism is accedental
People are not "colorblind".
Noticing race in anyway is the problem.
gender determines experience
role and behaviors
career, interests, opinions, habits, sexuality
gender and gender hierarchy are universal and inevitable
viewed as social, cultural, and histrical differences among men and women
not "male/female" but "masculinit/femininity"
not fixed, predictable, or universal
women strongly invested w/ gender roles; experiences & contribution ignored
men invested in gender privileges; more important
arbitrary nature is not enough to change practices
anatomy not destined
gender & power linked
division of labor & power in society
equality through empowerment
sisterhood as solidarity
Examine women's experience and agency in social processes.
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