The 2008 cost of heart and blood vessel disease in the US is estimated to be at least ________
Coronary heart disease (CHD)
condition in which the arteries that supply the heart with O2 and nutrients are narrowed by fatty deposits, such as cholesterol and triglycerides
Peripheral vascular disease
narrowing of the peripheral blood vessels leading to poor circulation
congenital heart disease
not your fault - born with it. Heart/blood vessels don't develop properly before or at birth.
rheumatic heart disease
permanent damage to heart caused by rheumatic fever -very uncommon now
fat buld-up in arteries (plaque)
blood vessels to brain rupture or are clogged "stroked out"
chronically elevated bp
congestive heart failure
-end result of gradual loss of heart muscle due to blockage, infections, HBP. -heart is irreversibly damaged -death sentance- medicated to manage but with eventually die from it.
CVD accounts for nearly ___ % of all deaths in the US.
What is the most prevalent degenerative condition?
What fraction of adults have some form of disease of the heart and blood vessels?
How many people have heart attacks each year?
How many of the heart attacks that occur every year result in death?
more than 45% of the 1.26 million
Half of the deaths occur within how long after onset symptoms?
What is the third leading cause of death in the U.S?
-most significant contributor to mental and physical disability -characterized by 7 of 11 risk factors being lifestyle related
How many stroke victims are there each year?
How many stroke victims die each year and what percent are left with a permanent disability?
143,600 die 33% are left with a permanent disability (20% of survivors require institutional care)
Who has the highest prevalence of being a victim of stroke?
Men AA's Hypertension Smokers
Signs of stroke
-numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg. -confusion, difficulty in speech or understanding -trouble seeing -trouble walking, loss of balance, or coordination -severe headache of unknown cause (symptoms can make is seem like the person is drunk)
The decline in incidence of blood vessel disease is due to what?
Prevalence of CHD
-prevalence of CHD has NOT changed, but deaths have declined, so ppl are just living through CHD
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
-major form of CVD -arteries supplying heart muscle are narrowed -may precipitate heart attack
What is the leading cause of death in the US?
Coronary Heart Disease
How many coronary bypass operations are performed each year?
How many angioplasty procedures are done each year?
CHD risk profile
-genetics -lifestyle -most risk factors are preventable
-cannot inflate artery/vein so they will skip it and create an alternate route. -take vein usually from leg and reattach it and reroute it around the chunk that is blocked
-a balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into clogged artery and inflates the vessel so blood can flow through. -if person doesn't change habits then the plaque will continue to build up and will close the balloon
Signs of a Heart Attack
intense, prolonged chest pain
shortness of breath
nausea and vomitting
Heart attacks in women
-fewer than 30% reported having chest pain or discomfort prior to their heart attacks -43% reported having no chest pain during any phase of the attack.
symptoms of a heart attack (women)
pain in :
Physical inactivity is considered ___ of the ___ major risk factors for CVD
1 of the 6
What is the most influential risk factor regarding CHD?
Physical activity controls what major risk factors?
-blood pressure -body fat -blood lipids -HDL cholesterol -counteract personal history -diabetes -inflammation -heart function -smoking cessation -tension and stress
What are the five areas reviewed for an abnormal ECG?
-heart rate -heart rhythm -axis of heart -enlargement of heart -heart attack
-men >45; women >55 -ppl with 2+ CHD risk factors that want to participate in vigorous exercise -any person with a heart problem who want to start exercising moderately or vigorously -family history of men <55 and women <65 dying of heart related issue -ppl with abnormal resting ECG
-test accurately diagnoses CHD about 65% of the time. -sensitivity increases with severity of disease
Cholesterol & triglycerides are carried in bloodstream by protein
-HDL -LDL -VLDL -Chylomicrons
transport fat from its port of entry in the intestine to the liver and to adipose tissue