caring about- attending to and being aware of need for care caring for- taking responsibility for meeting needs of another caregiving- material meeting of care, behavior of caring care-receiving-relational aspect of care (grateful, dissatisfied, ask for more, etc.)
What do children need? (Ruddick)
Preservation- basic needs met: food, shelter, safety Growth- fostering their selves, talents, abilities, personalities Social acceptability- learning to be part of society
- competing conceiving of care: longer-range goals, hopes and fears for children and here and now, immediate challenges, safety, out of trouble - care projects are shared projects: coordinated activity across many people, mobiliation of resources
Reading Signs of Care (Thorne)
-to cope with uncertainty parents "read signs" to see how child is doing -can be experience as attentive love or surveilance (due to caregiver having more power than care-receiver) -institutional- school produce signs--test scores, report cards, detentions, homework, teacher conferences - more than just parents do this (social workers, police, other professionals)
Who cares for kids?
mostly women and mothers
Who cares for kids... in married two parent heterosexual families?
-mothers more likely to "stay at home" -working mothers spend 4.3 hours/day w/ kids & 1.4 hours in primary care (feeding, bathing, dressing) -working married fathers spen 3.7 hours w/ kids & .8 hours in primary care -mothers and fathers spend same amount of time playing/reading/talking
Why do mothers work?
1. money, security for the future 2. self-actualization- social psychology of workplace, social support, adult companionship
Childcare in the U.S.
-shortage of high quality daycare -about half of US mothers of infants and preschoolers work -no national policy for childcare (there is in other places)
for infants about $1,500/month for full-time infant care in A2 about $1,000/month for 2-5 year olds
Deficit of Care (Hochschild)
more working mothers longer work hours more single parents more absent, uninvolved fathers via divorce fewer governmental resources allocated for careq
Cultural Models for Organizing Care (Hochschild)
Traditional ideals of care- mom stays home Postmodern ideals of care- mom juggles work and home, we don't need so much care Cold modern ideals of care- institutional care is enough Warm modern ideals of care- a balance of flexible jobs and institutional care and gender equal parenting
Quality care is with....
- small child-caregiver ratio - small group size - caregivers trained in child development - stability of child care experience
Daycare in centers vs. Daycare in a home
- centers are significantly safer than care in private homes (esp. for infants) - organization of work is a crucial factor in risk differences between centers and in home care
Quality of Care in Centers
- multiple staff members (checking and relieving) - a director - professional model w/ training and accountability - single purpose organization w/ boundaries
Quality of Care in Homes
- usually individual based (little support) - little accountability - quasi-maternal model not professional model - private homes, no organizational boundaries
Age and Length of time in care matter (Polsky et al)
- slightly more behavioral problems in elementary school for kids who spend more tan 2 years in daycare before kindergarten
Socioeconomic Class and Care (Ruhm)
- high income kids of mothers who stay home, do best on academic tests and are less likely to be obese at age 10 than kids of high income mothers who work - low income kids who go to daycaredo better at age 10 on tests and obesity than low income kids who stay home with mothers - high income kids all do better than low income kids
Kids as care-takers
- help with activity of daily living (getting ready for school) - help w/ shopping, chores, meals - send time keeping younger sibling company - 1/3 help with younger siblings medication - 17% help younger sibling communicate with doctors or nurses
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