Carl Jung: Cognition, behavior, and emotions have purpose: Achieving future goals Infusing life with meaning Principle of opposites Most fundamental principle. Conflict between complexes leads to tension. Tension creates energy. Libido ?Value? replaces ?Cathexis? General Life force with its own source Principle of Equivalence: One aspect of Psychic Function in another Or visa versa Principle of Entropy: Psyche is a ?self-regulating? system Overvalued part yields libido to its undervalued counterpart Enantiodromia: eventually, an undervalued psychic part will emerge Complexes A ?complex? is a group of emotionally charged thoughts that are related to a particular theme Jung created a word association test to study complexes Conscious ideas composing the center of awareness Provides a high degree of continuity: of ?me? or ?I? (SELF) Across lifespan Develops around the age of 4 Can repress threatening material Relatively weak Often pushed and pulled by unconscious forces Consciousness Personal Unconscious: Contains: Unconscious personal experience that are: simply forgotten repressed due to threatening nature of insufficient value Begins to form at birth Contents can be accessed under certain circumstances Contains both past and future material Collective Unconscious: Contents: imbedded our brain and nervous system latent memories pre-dispositions to act Archetypes (universal emotional symbols) Present at birth genetically passed down from primordial ancestors Transpersonal due to common evolution and brain structure Archetypes: passed from generation to generation Primordial thought forms, ideas or image Predispose us to apprehend or interpret our world Instincts = modes of action and reaction Archetypes = modes of perception Remain dormant unless strengthened by appropriate experiences Archetypes: Animus/Anima Male element in a woman/female element in a man Persona and Shadow Socially acceptable front vs. dark and unacceptable side of personality Mother Embodiment of generativity and fertility Hero and Demon Strong force for good vs. cruelty and evil Positive aspect : Creates an outer social facade to: interact with others conceal innermost feelings socially acceptable expression of innermost feelings Negative aspect: Dissociation from the enlightening forces of personal and collective unconscious The dark, sinister side of our personality personal unconscious: Shadow = experiences we reject on moral grounds collective unconscious: Shadow = universal personifications of evil Negative Side Unexplained moods or desire to harm self or others Shadow joins with other forces Creates a complex with enough value to: overpower the ego and thereby erupt into consciousness Positive Side: promotes feelings of vitality, spontaneity, and creativity Feminine archetype in men Positive Side: Helps men understand women Contributes to: intuition feelings of warmth the desire to nurture Negative Side: contributes to moodiness and irritability Masculine archetype in women Positive Side: Helps women understand men Fosters use of: reasoning and logic for decision making and problem solving Negative Side: uncritical and dogmatic adherence to ideas irrationality in problem solving Fosters searching for ways to maximize the development of our potentials ??Individuation means becoming an ?individual, ? and, in so far as ?individuality? embraces our innermost, last, and incomparable uniqueness, it also implies becoming one?s own self. We could therefore translate individuation as ?coming to selfhood? or ?self-realization.? ?--C.G. Jung Enables Self-exploration Integrates the unconscious into daily lives Fosters ?transcendence? (transcendent function): Acceptance of conflicting opposites (i.e., complexes) live harmoniously within self and with others
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