Carolingian Renaissance Peter of Pisa Italian scholar Grammarian from Italy Paul the Deacon Italian scholar Historian from Italy Theodulf the Visigoth Theodulf of Orleans A Visigoth from spain Bishop of Orleans c. 798-818 Author of the Libri Carolini Author of several capitularies Left behind a large corpus of poetry Alcuin of York From England (which turned Christian after the Irish introduced it) Deacon at York Cathedral Joined charlemagne?s court in 781 Became head of the palace school at Aachen Became abbot of St. Martin?s monestary, Tours, in 786 Wrote treaties on theology, grammar, hadryogorophy (biographies of saints), and over 300 letters to his friends and colleagues Einhard Charlemagne?s biographer Said Charlemagne would sleep with latin and greek tablets (he may not have become an expert in it but it shows he was interested) General Admonition (789) Capitulary concerning: Religious education Behavior and conduct of clergy (many were getting married, etc?) Requirements for establishing new schools Every male had to have access to an education They had to at least learn to read Ordered everyone to start obeying the rules trivium and quadrivium this is what was being taught trivium: grammar, rhetoric, logic quadrivium music, astronomy, mathematics, geometry these are the 7 Liberal Arts Fulda Abbey Place where Einhard received his education Trains some of the finest scholars of the time period Reichenau Abbey Another famous abbey All the abbots write to each other, all across france and germany Sacramentarium Gregorianum Liturgical Book Why would Charlemagne have this sent up from Rome and had copies made? To bring about standardization of the liturgy Contains what the priests have to do (how do conduct mass, etc?) Biblical exegesis Study and interpret the Bible Glosses: men would write commentary within the margins Glossa Ordinaria Dates to the 12th century, but attributed to this time period Hrabanus Maurus wrote several commentaries Hrabanus Maurus Studied with Alcuin at Fulda Abbot of Fulda (822) Archbishop of Mainz (848) Wrote several biblical commentaries Walafrid Strabo ?Squint-Eyed? Abbot of Reischeman Abbey in 838 Wrote theological, historical, and poetic works Glossa Ordinaria was wrongly attributed to him John Scotus Erigena Irish Fluent in Greek Summoned by Charlemagne Became head or the Palace School at Aachen Author of de divisione naturae which was condemned in 1225; he was ahead of his time, no one could understand his thinking. Libri Carolini Written by Theodulf of Orleans Caroline Minuscule Script that evolved and was used in the monasteries because it was so easily read. Mass produced manuscripts Producing classical texts (for example, Virgil?s Aeneid) Administration and Government Palatium Aachen Palace where Charlemagne stayed until he died Capella Royal vassals Margraves Placitum generale Capitularies Missi Dominici Pepin the Hunchback Economy Royal demesne Would feed the noblemen Payment in kind Silver penny Legal Jurisdiction Palace Court County Court Judgment-Finders Primary sources from Tuesday?s reading Who issued it: Charlemagne Who is it written to: written to the Abbot Fulda What is the document saying: annual assembly of the Placitum Generale held in Saxony, Charlemagne refers to himself as emperor (thus this document is dated after 800, technically after he subdued the Saxons, but that doesn?t mean there was peace); Charlemagne is telling the Abbot where the assembly is and bring his army; Charlemagne probably needed a big army to settle the turmoil on the border of Saxony, that?s why Charlemagne held the assembly in Saxony Larger historical context: Charlemagne is exercising his power as an emperor. He can go to any border he wants. Specific: a prime example of the mixture of church and state and control of Charlemagne over the church. Men unsuitable for ecclesiastical positions and having them. Primary Source for Thursday, 29th. What?s it saying: introducing the missi dominici and what there doings are What?s the focus of the capitulary: reminds his kingdom that they have to mind the missi dominici, and that no one shall or should go against the capitulary; the people have to follow the law and cannot harm the church in anyway; Article #2: what?s the theme? The relationships between Charlemagne as emperor and his subjects, people who have sworn loyalty to him have to follow through with it; Charlemagne had to lay out the dynamics of the relationship between him as a lord and his subjects Capitulary for Saxony: demonstrates to us how severe Charlemagne could be and how problematic the Saxons could be; the capitulary usually started out by saying if you do this?the punishment is death If pagan tendencies come back in the way that people worship, they will have to pay a fine Charlemagne stopped the coinage of gold and established the coinage of the silver penny
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