Name the 5 central causes of the Chinese Civil War.
- Political instability and foreign influence
- Social and economic factors
- Ideological differences between the CCP and GMD
- Breaking of the 1st UF/White Terror
- Breaking of the 2nd UF/Sino-Japanese War
State the years of Yuan Shikai's rule, and the main features of his government.
1912-1916 (his death) Yuan Shikai was handed power by Sun Yat-sen when he realised that Yuan had the support of the military and warlords. His rule saw a push to return to traditional Confucian values, and eventually he tried to reinstate himself as emperor. His government was marked by further movement towards foreign influence (in 1913 he negotiated a loan of US$100M from a consortium of Western Powers in return for concessions, and in 1915 acquiesced to the 21 Demands).
State one historical interpretation of Yuan Shikai (Immanuel Hsü).
Yuan was a 'megalomaniac', too confident to know when to stop and blinded by power.
State 5 factors in the political weakness of pre-war China.
- Fall of the Manchu dynasty
- Yuan Shikai's rule
- Foreign exploitation (21 Demands)
- Treaty of Versailles (1919)
- Warlords and regionalism
Give a general explanation of how warlords contributed to instability in China
- Created regionalism, decentralising power, leading to a weak and ineffective central government in Beijing.
- Warlord rule was in general one of oppression and terror, which exploited peasants.
- Waged costly battles in pursuit of power and glory, leaving a path of ruin and destruction
- Paved the way for communism through divisive rivalries, ineptitude at managing provincial economies, and thieving ways.