Hyperglycemia defined as fasting BGL above ___? Diagnostic of what?
126 mg/dL; diabetes mellitus
In glycolysis, how many ATP can be created?
Net 2, but pyruvate can be oxidized to make 34 more (36 total)
What is the Pasteur effect?
Aerobic conditions suppress glycolysis via allosteric inhibition of glycolytic enzymes by citrate and ATP.
What is the Warburg effect?
Many cancers exhibit high glyc. rate even with oxygen
Where is Warburg effect used in clinical detection?
Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, where ingested glucose tracer FdG shows where glucose is being consumed (invasive cancer cells take much more than normal cells)
What is erythritol?
A 4C sugar alcohol used as artif. sweetener. Little metabolized, little energy release, no tooth decay. Absorbed in SI, excreted in urine, low flatulence.
What is Xylitol?
5C sugar alcohol used as natural sweetener - low glycemic index, no tooth decay, lower energy than sucrose with same sweetness. No bad aftertaste like some. Flatulence included.
What is Mannitol?
Sugar alcohol for energy storage by microorganisms and plants. Treats head trauma, kidney failure. Heart-lung machine primer, makes blood-brain barrier permeable to drugs. Inhaled solid treats CF by liquifying mucus. Half as sweet as sucrose with flatulence included.
What is sorbital?
Sugar alcohol used as sweetener in chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash. Also a laxative.
Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids
Last double bond 3 (linolenic acid) or 6 (linoleic, arachidonic acids) C's from end of chain.
Lipids in Respiratory distress syndrome
Phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), sphingomyelin, phosphatidylglycerol are components of lung surfactant that lowers alveolar surface tension. Immature lungs don't produce enough surfactant --> RDS, increasing risk of partial lung collapse. L/S ratio > 2:1 with phos...glycerol indicates mature lungs.
Cholesterol and gallstones?
Too much cholesterol in bile + too little bile salts = cholesterol hardens into pebble solids (stones). Treated with oral chenodeoxycholic acid to supplement bile acid pool and help dissolve stones.
How is protein charge determined?
Gel electrophoresis and serum proteins?
pH in relation to pKa of amino, carboxy, and R-groups. pKa > pH means takes H+ ion.
Gel electrophoresis used to resolve major serum proteins like albumin, alpha-1, 2, beta, and gamma globulins.
Disulfide bonds in hairstyling?
Keratin has high cysteine content and can be oxidized/reduced to curl/straighten hair.
Cytoplasm does not have proper oxidizing environment due to high  of glutathione antioxidant
Carbohydrate general formula
Cn(H2O)n n = 3-9
Carbohydrate metabolism provides large part of the body's ___?
Four main common dietary carbs
Starch, sucrose, dietary fiber, lactose
What is starch?
Nutritional reservoir in plants, glucose polysaccharide
2 main forms of starch
amylose (unbranched) and amylopectin (branched)
What is sucrose composed of?
Disaccharide of glucose and fructose
Where is sucrose found?
Fruits and veggies
Dietary fiber is of ___ origin
What is lactose?
the major dietary carb of animal origin
What is lactose composed of?
Disaccharide of glucose and galactose
glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose
Maltose, lactose, sucrose
Oligosaccharides are composed of __ monosaccharides
Glycolipids and glycoproteins
Oligosaccharides are found where?
Attached to membrane lipids and proteins
Polysaccharides are composed of __ monosaccharides
Glycogen, starch, cellulose
3 ID parts of a monosaccharide
#C, functional group, stereoisomer form
Two functional groups of carbs?
Ketone and aldehyde
What are epimers?
Diastereomers that differ in only 1 chiral center configuration
What are monosaccharide epimers?
One OH group is switched to other side
What determines the D- or L- sugar stereoisomer forms?
Position of chiral -OH farthest from carbonyl
Most sugars are in __-series in humans
How to go from Fischer to Haworth projections?
Last chiral OH attacks anomeric carbon, all OH's on right go down, all OH's on left go up, CH2OH of C6 goes up. Anomeric OH goes up or down based on alpha or beta anomer
Alpha vs. beta anomer sugars
Alpha - anomeric OH grp opposite C6 grp (down) Beta - anomeric OH grp same side as C6 grp (up)
Pyranose vs furanose
Pyranose = 6 member ring Furanose = 5 member ring
Why does ring structure form?
Glucose Fischer projection
R, L, R, R
Fructose fischer projection
(C2 ketone) 3L, 4R, 5R
5 main metabolically important chemically-modified monosaccharides