what are the 3 components to identify a monosaccharide?
-Carbon number -Functional group -Stereoisomer form
what are the functional groups of sugars?
ketose and aldose
what is an epimer?
diastereomer that differs in only one chiral center
how are the D and L labelings assigned
to the chiral OH group farthest from the carbonyl group D-on the right L-on the left
what is the importance of D vs L sugars
most sugars are in the D series in humans and it is important because of the specificity of enzymes and receptors to specific D and L configurations.
where does a CHO spend more of its structural time?
as a ring--but a very small amount as a chain structure.
What can the body do with sugars?
use them as energy or use them metabolically as -Deoxyaldose (major part DNA) -Acetylated amino sugars (cell signaling, cel adhesion, immuno response -Sugar esters (nervous system -Sugar alcohols (food additives)
how are saccharides joined?
what is the difference in glycosidic lyncages between Amylopectin and Amylose?
Amylose is alpha 1-4 while Amylopectin has aplha 1-4 linkages but also branches using alpha 1-6 linkages.
what is the bonding pattern of cellulose and how/why does it differ in its structure from glycogen and starch
cellulose is B1-4 linked. Cellulose is very long and straight while starch and glycogen are bent as they need to more suitable for storage.
what is a lipid and what makes it hydrophobic?
it is a water insoluble molecule. Fatty acid tail avoids water.
fatty acids are key components in glycolipids and phospholipids which are found where?
in cell membranes
what are lipids synthesized from?
what's the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and what makes one essential?
Saturated means no double bonds in the Carbon hydrogen chain. Some fatty acids are essential because humans cannot introduce a double bond beyond Carbon 9
what are isoprenoids and the three main examples of them?
5 carbon molecules that make up -bile salts -hormones -cholestrol
how are lipids used?
-fuel stores (9kcal vs 4kcal) -Structural support i.e. mechanical (e.g. kidney's) and electrical insulation -Signaling events i.e. cofactors, and signaling molecules
amino acids serve as precursors to what?
Acetyl CoA--from pyruvate which is from amino acids (gluconeogenisis) -precursors to heme, biogenic amines, etc. -homones i.e. insulin and glucagon
what happens if you are missing an essential amino acid in your diet?
you have a negative nitrogen balance and begin to have Sxs of deficiency
what are amino acids made up of? also mention the pH of any dissociable protons.
Central carbon amine group--pKa 9.1-9.7 carboxylic acid--pH 1.8-2.8 R-group
What are the different forms of proteins with the same R group? and what is the most abundent form?
D and L the most abundant form is L however Serine, which is a critical neurotransmitter is D-Serine
what are the polar amino acids? and where are they found?
in the cytosol, and extracellular environment uncharged +Threonine, Tyrosine, Serine, glutamine, cystein, asparagine, Negatively charged, Aspartic Acid, glutamic acid Positively charged, Arginine, Histidine, Lysine
what are the nonpolar Amino Acids? and where are they found?
Alanine, Glycine Proline Isoleucine Leucine Methionine Phenylalanine Tryptophan valine. found in the cell membrane or the inside of a spherical protein
what is the pI?
pH where the charge is 0
derivatives of AA
why are proteins important?
Fuel supply i.e. TCA cyle Structural support i.e. elastin, karatin, collagen activity i.e. enzymes, cell signaling, motion
discuss primary structure vs secondary structure vs tertiary structure vs quaterinary structure.
P-linearly written linked by peptide bonds. S-coil, pleat, and turn from hydrogen bonding T-3D configuration from hydrophobic interactions, S-S bonds, metal ions and H bonding Q-subunits arranged into complexes. H bonded, salt bridges, hydrophobic interactions, van der waals forces.
what's the difference between fibrous proteins and globular proteins?
F- Parallel single linear axis poly peptides. form tough water insouble fibers G- Tightly foleded ~spherical
what is the most abundant glubular protein
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