the generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes. in most cases, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
two copies of duplicated chromosome attached to each other by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along with arms. While joined, two sister chromatids make up one chromosome. Chromatids eventually separate during mitosis or meiosis II.
in a duplicated chromosome, the region on each sister chromatid where they are most closely attached to each other by proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences; this close attachment causes a constriction in the condensed chromosme.
a structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that functions as a microtubule-organizing center and is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles.
a structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
a protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements and other cell components, producing movement of whole cell or parts of the cell.
an assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis.
the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis I, meiosis I, or meiosis II.
any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell or their precursors.
a haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reprodutcion to produce a diploid zygote.
a cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
a cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n)
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