(c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood Modified by Dr. Nownes (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Emerging Adulthood Emerging adulthood -- transition from adolescence to adulthood (18-25) Five key features characterize emerging adulthood: Identity exploration, especially in love and work Instability Self-focused Feeling in-between The age of possibilities (a liberating time for those who did not have a good childhood) (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Markers of Becoming an Adult Most widely recognized marker: holding a permanent, full-time job Economic independence is often a long economic process Taking responsibility for oneself Other markers include: Deciding your own beliefs and values. (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. From High School to College Replays the top-dog phenomenon It involves movement to a larger, more impersonal school structure Includes interaction with peers from more diverse geographical and ethnical backgrounds Has an increased focus on achievement (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Physical Performance and Development Most of us reach our peak physical performance before the age of 30. Signs of decline around age 30: (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Obesity Obesity -- having a body mass index of 30 or more Obesity is linked to increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease Factors involved in obesity: heredity, leptin, set point and metabolism, environmental factors, ethnicity, and gender (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Strategies for Building Exercise into your Life Replace some of your TV time with exercise Chart your exercise progress Get rid of excuses Imagine the alternative Learn more about exercise More? (Exercise with a buddy) (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Substance Abuse By mid-twenties, many young adults have reduced their use of alcohol and drugs Alcoholism -- disorder that involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive , and excessive use of alcoholic beverages and that impairs the drinker?s health and social relationships 1 of 9 people who drink continues to alcoholism causes include genetic influence, as well as environmental factors (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Recovery from Alcoholism A positive outcome and recovery from alcoholism are predicted by certain factors: a strong negative experience related to drinking finding a substitute dependency (chain smoker) Having new social supports joining an inspirational group, e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Risks of smoking or being around those who do Smoking is linked to cancer deaths, heart disease deaths, and chronic pulmonary disease Nicotine -- the active drug in cigarettes -- is a stimulant that increases the smoker?s energy and alertness, a pleasurable and reinforcing experience Five years after stopping smoking, health risk is less than for people who continue to smoke (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Methods to Help Smokers Overcome Nicotine Addiction Most adult smokers would like to quit, but their addiction to nicotine often makes quitting a challenge using a substitute source of nicotine taking an antidepressant controlling stimuli associated with smoking going ?cold turkey? (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Sexuality (skipped) Emerging adulthood is a time when most individuals are ?both sexually active and unmarried? _______________ sex is more common in emerging adulthood than in young adulthood An individual?s sexual orientation?same-sex, heterosexual, or bisexual?is determined by a combination of_____________, hormonal, cognitive, and ____________________factors (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Sexual Orientation (skipped) Sexual orientation is likely a _________________from exclusive male-female relations to exclusive same-sex relations Many ____________differences that appear in heterosexual relationships occur in same-sex relationships Brown believes that lesbians and gay males adapt __________ when they don?t define themselves in polarities (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Sexually Transmitted Infections (skipped) Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) -- diseases that are primarily contracted through intercourse and/or oral-genital and anal-genital sex Most prevalent STIs bacterial infections - gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia viruses - genital herpes, genital warts, and HIV, which can lead to AIDS (National Center for Health Statistics, 2004) (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (Skipped) Has changed sexual behavior and has created significant public________ HIV -- a sexually transmitted infection that destroys the body?s immune system The _________ breaks down and overpowers the immune system, which leads to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) For an individual sick with AIDS, a common cold can be life-threatening (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Protecting Yourself from STIs (Skipped) Just asking a date about his or her sexual behavior does not guarantee _________________ from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections Know your __________status as well as your partner?s Obtain ____________ examinations Have protected, not unprotected, sex Avoid having sex with ___________ partners (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Forcible Sexual Behavior and Sexual Harassment (skipped) Sex often involves the exercise of_______ Rape -- forcible sexual intercourse with a person who does not give___________ Male rapists share the following characteristics: aggression enhances their sense of power or masculinity they are angry at women in general they want to hurt and humiliate their victims (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Rape Victims (Skipped) Rape is a traumatic experience Victims initially feel __________and numbness and often are acutely disorganized As victims strive to get their lives back to normal, they may experience____________, fear, anxiety, and increased substance use and/or sexual dysfunctions for months or years (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Date Rape (Skipped) Date or acquaintance rape -- coercive sexual activity directed at someone with whom the victim is at least casually acquainted __:3 college freshman women report having been date-raped or experienced attempted date rape __:3 college men admit that they fondle women against their will __:2 men admit to forcing sexual activity (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Cognition in Young Adulthood (Started here again) Piaget concluded adolescents and adults think qualitatively in the same way Piaget and information-processing psychologists support the idea that adults increase their knowledge in a specific area Many adults do not think in formal operational ways at all (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Post formal Thought Piagets proposed 5th stage The search for truth is often an ongoing, never-ending process Post formal thought -- understanding that the correct answer to a problem requires reflective thinking and can vary situationally includes the belief that solutions to problems need to be realistic and that emotion and subjective factors can influence thinking (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Career and Work Important themes of early adulthood: earning a living, choosing an occupation, establishing a career, and developing in a career by mid-twenties, many individuals have completed their education or training and started to enter a full-time occupation through the remainder of early adulthood, individuals often seek to establish their emerging career in a particular field and improve their financial standing (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Personality Personality type theory -- it is important to match an individual?s personality with a particular careers. Holland believes that when individuals find careers that fit their personality, they are more likely to enjoy the work and stay in the job longer He proposed six basic career-related personality types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional. (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Unemployment Unemployment produces stress regardless of whether the job loss is temporary, cyclical, or permanent Stress comes not only from a loss of income and the resulting financial hardships but also from decreased self-esteem (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dual-Career Couples Dual-career couples may have particular problems finding a balance between work and the rest of life division of responsibility for work and family has changed husbands are taking increased responsibility and showing greatest interest in families and parenting women are taking increased responsibility for breadwinning Husbands do 45% of the housework now. 1/3 of women make as much or more than husbands now. (c) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Diversity in the Workplace Ethnic and gender diversity is increasing in the workplace in nearly every developed country and in many professions Latinos are projected to constitute a larger percentage of the labor force than African Americans by 2014 glass ceiling ? invisible barrier to career advancement preventing women and ethnic minorities from holding managerial or executive jobs. (This seems to be breaking)
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