Last Modified: 2011-06-29
achieved status is a social position acquired through our own efforts of accomplishments or taken on voluntarily; ascribed status is a social position acquired at birth or taken on involuntarily later in life
2+ people having characteristics in common but not unified by interaction patterns
subgroup of a triad, formed when 2 members unite against the 3rd member
dependent variable is assumed to be caused by, or to change as a result of, the independent variable; the independent variable presumes to cause or influence the dependent variable
emphasizes the roles of experience and evidence; knowledge comes via the sense’s experience
the belief that one’s own cultural or ethnic group is superior to others, and that all other groups are measured in relation to theirs
process through which people’s lives all around the world become economically, politically, environmentally, and culturally interconnected
set of people who interact more or less regularly and who are conscious of their identity as a unit
unquestioned cultural belief that cannot be proved wrong no matter what happens to dispute it
attributing people’s achievements and failures to their personal qualities; pg. 3
those groups we belong to and toward which we feel a sense of loyalty
unintended, unrecognized consequences of activities that help some part of the social system
intended, obvious consequences of activities designed to help some part of the social system
way of examining human life that focuses on the immediate, everyday experiences of individuals
refers to the nonphysical ideas that people have about their culture, including beliefs, values, rules, norms, morals, language, organizations, and institutions. For instance, the non-material cultural concept of religion consists of a set of ideas and beliefs about God, worship, morals, and ethics. These beliefs, then, determine how the culture responds to its religious topics, issues, and events.
qualitative research is a method of sociological research based on nonnumerical information (text, written words, phrases, symbols, observations) that describes people, actions, or events in social life; quantitative research is based on the collection of numerical data that uses precise statistical analysis
frustration people feel when the demands of one role they are expected to fulfill clash with the demands of another role
relatively impersonal collection of individuals that is established to perform a specific task
role of norms governing how one is supposed to behave and what one is entitled to when sick
values, behaviors, and artifacts of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture
theoretical perspective that explains society and social structure through an examination of the micro-level, personal, day-to-day exchanges of people as individuals, pairs, or groups
set of statements or proposition that seeks to explain or predict a particular aspect of social life
standard of judgment by which people decide on desirable goals and outcomes
any characteristic, attitude, behavior, or event that can take on two or more values or attributes
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