A systematic, self-imposed limitation of observations viewed as important and worthy of study; accompanying ways of thinking about phenomena and patterns of behavior, and means for studying those phenomena (a.k.a., paradigm).
The endeavor to understand the mind in terms of the body; addressing issues concerning basic biological mechanisms, such as anatomy, physiology, inheritance, and even evolution, and their relevance for personality.
Psychologists who focus on overt behavior and the ways it can be affected by rewards and punishments present in the environment.
An emphasis on the degree to which psychology and the very experience of reality might vary across cultures.
Funder's first law
Great strengths are usually great weaknesses, and surprisingly often the opposite is true as well.
The pursuit of how conscious awareness can produce such uniquely human attributes as existential anxiety, creativity, and free will, and tries to understand the meaning and basis of the experience of happiness.
Refers to a range of differences between people on a given trait (e.g., scoring extraversion on a scale from 0-100; e.g., in terms of a physical feature, measuring height in terms of feet and inches).
The ways in which people change what they do as a result of the rewards, punishments, and other experiences in life.
learning and cognitive approaches
Behaviorism, social learning theory, and cognitive personality psychology comprise this approach.
One big theory
Dr. Funder's name for a theory that could explain everything now accounted for separately by trait?biological, psychoanalytic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive approaches.
An individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior, together with the psychological mechanisms, hidden or not, behind those patterns.
personality psychology's emphasis
How individuals are different from one another.
Practiced by psychologists who focus primarily on people's conscious experience of the world.
Categorizing human beings (e.g., high extraversion or low extraversion; e.g., in terms of a physical feature, calling someone tall or short).
Practiced by psychologists who are concerned primarily with the workings of the unconscious mind and the nature and resolution of internal mental conflict.
The combination of how people think, feel, and behave.
The scientific study of the mind.
social learning theorists
Psychologists who attempt to draw inferences about how mental processes such as observation and self-evaluation determine how behaviors are learned and performed.
Focuses efforts on the ways that people differ psychologically from one another and how these differences might be conceptualized and measured.
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