John Marshall lead the court from 1803-1835 and was the most influential Supreme Court Justice, he... 1) Ended practice of seriatim (which was where justices delivered their INDIVIDUAL opinions. Marshall believed justices needed to speak as a court, not 6 [now 9] individuals.) 2) Established authority of Supreme Court over state judiciaries, AND Congress + Federal Governments over state governments through McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) 3) Judicial Review (where judges decisions off of constitutionality--judges are the final arbiter of whether something is constitutional or not) through Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
Ratified in 1789, specifically limited judicial power by stipulating that the authority of the federal courts could not "extend to any suit commended or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State. (Citizens of another state cannot sue another state.) This came after the Chisholm v. Georgia decision in 1793, in where the Supreme Court denounced states rights saying that citizens COULD sue other states.
Life tenure for all federal judges with "good behavior." This was to secure the independence of judges so they wouldn't be subject to the whims of politics, the public, or politicians.
Chisholm v. Georgia
A decision made in (1793) that held that citizens of one state could sue another state; led to the Eleventh Amendment, which prohibits a citizen of one state from suing another state.
Marbury vs. Madison
(1803) Decision that established judicial review. In 1803, John Adams appointed William Marbury as a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia very last-minute. Madison, under direct orders from Thomas Jefferson (who was an anti-federalist and an ENEMY to John Addams) refused to turn over the commission to Marbury. They filed a writ of mandamus to the Supreme Court, FORCING Madison to comply with the commissions. Through Marbury v. Madison, Marbury was confirmed and Madison was forced to turn over the commissions.
Authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in a particular case