11/30/10 2:54 PM The male slave and the female slave both had the same owner, Mr. Fuller, but the male had a cynical view of slavery while the woman felt that her master took good care of his slaves. The male doesn’t seem to be educated because his speech is hard to understand while the female has clearer, more grammatically correct English. The man talks about stories his father told him about slavery and how his master beat him and he tried to run away, but he was recaptured, but I’m not sure if the man was sold to a different owner because his account of his master and the woman’s account are very different. The man talks about how his master’s wife beats the women slaves, and families are split apart because they are sold to different masters. The women, on the other hand, talks about how kind her master was to her and how he took care of his slaves, paid them, gave them food and shelter, and never separated their families. She knew that many slave owners were bad, but she didn’t have resentment for white people because she knew they could be good and they brought God back into her life. She says that she was happy the Africans were taken from Africa because they had lost God and so had the Indians, so the white people could treat them as subordinates because God was punishing the blacks and Indians for forgetting Him. Antebellum period- period before the civil war where a lot of southern characteristics emerged, biracial society Slave Documents 11/30/10 2:54 PM U.B. Phillips (white), American Negro Slavery (1918) Thought of Slavery as a “school” Slavery was kind, Christianized Africans Whites took care of slaves, treated them like a part of the family Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution (1956) Slavery as a prison, physical brutality of slavery Opposed to Phillips view of slavery Beginning of civil rights movement Stanley Elkins, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (1959) Slavery as a concentration camp, psychologically effect of slavery similar to victims of concentration camps (broke them down, become childlike because of the brutal treatment) “Sambo” personality (childlike, happy-go-lucky because of slavery in order to cope with the abuse) many disagreed, didn’t think slavery was as psychologically damaging to all slaves, instead the child like behavior was a defense mechanism John Blassingame, The Slave Community (1974) Eugene Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (1974) Paternalism Evolving historical viewpoints 11/30/10 2:54 PM Slaves weren’t defenseless This document is basically a rewrite of the Declaration of Independence, but women were not mentioned in the original and they include them in this document. The women write that if a group of people feels unequal they have the right to stand up to the government that oppresses them because “all men and women are created equal.” Then the document goes on to list privileges and rights that men have and women don’t. I think this document rewrite is important because the Declaration of Independence says all men are created equal, but it was unclear if they meant men or both men and women, and obviously because of the laws forbidding women to do many things men it, the document only addressed the freedom of white males. The Seneca Falls Declaration talks about how if a group is oppressed they have the right to stand up to people, and I think this document seems to say that anyone, including slaves, has the right to stand up to their oppressors since all people are equal. The issues addressed have been resolved today; women have no special laws, but there is defiantly still some discrimination and stereotypes against women. I don’t think women and men will ever truly be treated fairly because we have had a patriarchal society for so long and still do that it’s hard for people to view women as equals. Also the issues the women had problems with took a long time to be changed and resolved, there wasn’t a dramatic acceptance of women as equals immediately after this document was written. Seneca Falls Declaration 11/30/10 2:54 PM Reform Movements people believe they can perfect society Temperance movement Want to ban the sale of alcohol (alcohol destroys families, working class men drink a lot) Had significant support in the South (only movement the south supported) Women are involved in this movement (during the time of Cult of Domesticity) Dealt with the family Education reform Want public education (before then only middle and upper class had resources to receive education) Believed everyone needed to be educated because the government was based on the people and in order for the people to make informed decisions about the government Horace Mann- believed everyone needed an education South didn’t like this movement The asylum movement Reform the prison system Wanted prisons to rehabilitate people so they will learn from their mistakes and reduce crime Not differentiation in prisons between different crimes Wanted to separate populations of people based on crimes (people who own debt, murders etc. need to be separated) Dorothea Dix- visited prisons then went to legislatures about how to change the prisons Health/Diet Improve the diet, improve the person Sylvester Graham- believed he invented the perfect diet Phrenology You can understand peoples abilities by feeling their skulls Women’s Rights Antislavery Background Grimke sisters- believed slavery was wrong and set out delivering speeches against slavery 1840 World Antislavery Convention (in England) women don’t have the right to vote at this convention women in attendance were angry, led to Women’s Rights Movement Women’s Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton First women’s rights meeting Reform Movements 11/30/10 2:54 PM Draft a declaration Background to abolitionism Pre-1830 some whites were opposed to slavery people usually endorsed plans for gradual emancipation (freeing of slaves) if they opposed slavery American Colonization Society Wanted to buy slaves out of slavery and colonize another part of the world and put them there Responses of free African Americans(could’ get good jobs, vote, discrimination) Opposed colonizing David Walker, Appeal (1829); opposed slavery and colonization Aggressive in opposing slavery; wanted to push whites to an aggressive stance on slavery Transition Nat Turner (1831)- led slave rebellion (killed 60 whites) Believed God wanted him to lead a violent rebellion against slavery Scared white southerners, inspired northern whites who opposed slavery Slave rebellions weren’t common Reform movements Nullification crisis Debate in Va. Legislature Last debate in the south about ending slavery, voted down Thomas R. Dew created proslavery argument Parliament votes to end slavery in British colonies, 1833 Set an example that some Americans believed the US should follow William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator First published, 1831; antislavery newspaper Slavery is evil, slaveholders are thieves, if slavery is going to be ended it should be ended gradually because it is obviously bad if people are voting to get rid of it Immediatism Moral Suasion- convince people of the immorality of slavery American Antislavery Society First meeting, 1833 Early antislavery actives Lane Rebels Theodore Weld Oberlin college- antislavery radicals gather Postal project Print a bunch of anti-slavery pamphlets and send them to all the southern post offices to raise awareness Charleston riot Southerners riot and remove the pamphlets Elijah P. Lovejoy Abolitionist newspaper editor People want him to stop printing antislavery documents, people surround his building and rioted Legislative petitions “gag rule” (1836) antislavery petitions couldn’t be read in congress Antislavery Movement 11/30/10 2:54 PM Liberator New England is more racist and has a more bitter opposition to emancipation than the south even though their states are free. He wants to maintain the words of the Declaration of Independence that “all men are created equal.” The slaves are his brothers in God and he feels like it is his duty to free them. Slavery is an evil and shouldn’t be ended gradually, but abruptly. He believes he is speaking the word of God and that God wants the slaves to be free so setting them free will be beneficial in the long run. North Star All people are equal under God and if one group suffers we all suffer. If one group of people is oppressed, then the people as a whole cannot grow. Even needs to come together to help end slavery, not just the blacks you are being oppressed. The Liberator and the North Star are both anti-slavery documents that encourage whites to support emancipation. The Liberator emphasizes the importance of ending slavery immediately because it is evil. The North Star emphasizes that all people are equal and as equals we need to come together to end the evil that is slavery.